Pharmacological Profile and Ocular Hypotensive Effects of Cromakalim Prodrug 1, a Novel ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener, in Normotensive Dogs and Nonhuman Primates

Uttio Roy Chowdhury, Rachel A. Kudgus, Bradley H. Holman, Tommy A. Rinkoski, Cheryl R. Hann, Cindy K. Bahler, Eric McCloud, Susan E. Appt, Joel M. Reid, Peter I. Dosa, Michael P Fautsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters and ocular hypotensive effects of cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) in normotensive large animal models. Methods: Optimal CKLP1 concentration was determined by dose response and utilized in short-(5-8 days) and long-term (60 days) evaluation in hound dogs (n = 5) and African Green Monkeys (n = 5). Blood pressure was recorded 3-5 times per week with a tail cuff. Concentrations of CKLP1 and the parent compound levcromakalim were assessed in hound dog plasma and select tissues by LC-MS/MS after bilateral ocular treatment with CKLP1 for 8 days. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from days 1, 4, and 8 data. After necropsy, histology was assessed in 43 tissue samples from each animal. Results: In hound dogs and African Green monkeys, 10 mM CKLP1 (optimal concentration) significantly lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 18.9% ± 1.1% and 16.7% ± 6.7%, respectively, compared with control eyes (P < 0.05). During treatment, no significant change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure was observed in either species (P > 0.1). Average values for half-life of CKLP1 was 295.3 ± 140.4 min, Cmax, 10.5 ± 1.6 ng/mL, and area under the concentration vs. time curve (AUClast) 5261.4 ± 918.9 ng·min/mL. For levcromakalim, average values of half-life were 96.2 ± 27 min, Cmax 1.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL, and AUClast 281.2 ± 110.8 ng·min/mL. No significant pathology was identified. Conclusions: CKLP1 lowered IOP in hound dogs and African green monkeys with no effect on systemic blood pressure. Ocular topical treatment of CKLP1 showed excellent tolerability even after extended treatment periods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-260
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume37
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021

Keywords

  • CKLP1
  • dogs
  • IOP
  • Kchannel openers
  • levcromakalim
  • nonhuman primates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Pharmacological Profile and Ocular Hypotensive Effects of Cromakalim Prodrug 1, a Novel ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener, in Normotensive Dogs and Nonhuman Primates'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this