Elevated intraocular pressure is the only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, an eye disease that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. We have identified cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1), a novel water-soluble ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, as a new ocular hypotensive agent. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of CKLP1 and its parent compound levcromakalim, Dutch-belted pigmented rabbits were treated intravenously (0.25 mg/kg) or topically (10 mM; 4.1 mg/ml) with CKLP1. Body fluids (blood, aqueous and vitreous humor) were collected at multiple time points and evaluated for the presence of CKLP1 and levcromakalim using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based assay. Histology of tissues isolated from Dutchbelted pigmented rabbits treated once daily for 90 days was evaluated in a masked manner by a certified veterinary pathologist. The estimated plasma parameters following intravenous administration of 0.25 mg/kg of CKLP1 showed CKLP1 had a terminal half-life of 61.8 ± 55.2 min, Tmax of 19.8 ± 23.0 min and Cmax of 1968.5 ± 831.0 ng/ml. Levcromakalim had a plasma terminal half-life of 85.0 ± 37.0 min, Tmax of 61.0 ± 32.0 min and Cmax of 10.6 ± 1.2 ng/ml. Topical CKLP1 treatment in the eye showed low levels (<0.3 ng/mL) of levcromakalim in aqueous and vitreous humor, and trace amounts of CKLP1 and levcromakalim in the plasma. No observable histological changes were noted in selected tissues that were examined following topical application of CKLP1 for 90 consecutive days. These results suggest that CKPL1 is converted to levcromakalim in the eye and likely to some extent in the systemic circulation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)