Pharmacogenomic next-generation DNA sequencing: Lessons from the identification and functional characterization of variants of unknown significance in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19

Sandhya Devarajan, Irene Moon, Ming Fen Ho, Nicholas Larson, Drew R. Neavin, Ann Moyer, John L. Black, Suzette J Bielinski, Steven E. Scherer, Liewei M Wang, Richard M Weinshilboum, Joel M Reid

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2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are highly polymorphic pharmacogenes; however, clinically actionable genetic variability in drug metabolism due to these genes has been limited to a few common alleles. The identification and functional characterization of less-common open reading frame sequence variation might help to individualize therapy with drugs that are substrates for the enzymes encoded by these genes. The present study identified seven uncharacterized variants each in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 using next-generation sequence data for 1013 subjects, and functionally characterized the encoded proteins. Constructs were created and transiently expressed in COS-1 cells for the assay of protein concentration and enzyme activities using fluorometric substrates and liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry with tolbutamide (CYP2C9) and (S)-mephenytoin (CYP2C19) as prototypic substrates. The results were compared with the SIFT, Polyphen, and Provean functional prediction software programs. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) activities were also determined. Positive correlations were observed between protein content and fluorometric enzyme activity for variants of CYP2C9 (P < 0.05) and CYP2C19 (P < 0.0005). However, CYP2C9 709G>C and CYP2C19 65A>G activities were much lower than predicted based on protein content. Substrate intrinsic clearance values for CYP2C9 218C>T, 343A>C, and CYP2C19 337G>A, 518C>T, 556C>T, and 557G>A were less than 25% of wild-type allozymes. CPR activity levels were similar for all variants. In summary, sequencing of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in 1013 subjects identified low-frequency variants that had not previously been functionally characterized. In silico predictions were not always consistent with functional assay results. These observations emphasize the need for high-throughput methods for pharmacogene variant mutagenesis and functional characterization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)425-435
Number of pages11
JournalDrug Metabolism and Disposition
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019

Fingerprint

Pharmacogenetics
DNA Sequence Analysis
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
Oxidoreductases
Proteins
Enzymes
Mephenytoin
Tolbutamide
COS Cells
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Mutagenesis
Liquid Chromatography
Computer Simulation
Open Reading Frames
Isoenzymes
Genes
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
Software
Alleles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Cite this

@article{164df6b82e4245deacf453fdc782ce6e,
title = "Pharmacogenomic next-generation DNA sequencing: Lessons from the identification and functional characterization of variants of unknown significance in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19",
abstract = "CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are highly polymorphic pharmacogenes; however, clinically actionable genetic variability in drug metabolism due to these genes has been limited to a few common alleles. The identification and functional characterization of less-common open reading frame sequence variation might help to individualize therapy with drugs that are substrates for the enzymes encoded by these genes. The present study identified seven uncharacterized variants each in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 using next-generation sequence data for 1013 subjects, and functionally characterized the encoded proteins. Constructs were created and transiently expressed in COS-1 cells for the assay of protein concentration and enzyme activities using fluorometric substrates and liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry with tolbutamide (CYP2C9) and (S)-mephenytoin (CYP2C19) as prototypic substrates. The results were compared with the SIFT, Polyphen, and Provean functional prediction software programs. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) activities were also determined. Positive correlations were observed between protein content and fluorometric enzyme activity for variants of CYP2C9 (P < 0.05) and CYP2C19 (P < 0.0005). However, CYP2C9 709G>C and CYP2C19 65A>G activities were much lower than predicted based on protein content. Substrate intrinsic clearance values for CYP2C9 218C>T, 343A>C, and CYP2C19 337G>A, 518C>T, 556C>T, and 557G>A were less than 25{\%} of wild-type allozymes. CPR activity levels were similar for all variants. In summary, sequencing of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in 1013 subjects identified low-frequency variants that had not previously been functionally characterized. In silico predictions were not always consistent with functional assay results. These observations emphasize the need for high-throughput methods for pharmacogene variant mutagenesis and functional characterization.",
author = "Sandhya Devarajan and Irene Moon and Ho, {Ming Fen} and Nicholas Larson and Neavin, {Drew R.} and Ann Moyer and Black, {John L.} and Bielinski, {Suzette J} and Scherer, {Steven E.} and Wang, {Liewei M} and Weinshilboum, {Richard M} and Reid, {Joel M}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1124/dmd.118.084269",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
pages = "425--435",
journal = "Drug Metabolism and Disposition",
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publisher = "American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics",
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T1 - Pharmacogenomic next-generation DNA sequencing

T2 - Lessons from the identification and functional characterization of variants of unknown significance in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19

AU - Devarajan, Sandhya

AU - Moon, Irene

AU - Ho, Ming Fen

AU - Larson, Nicholas

AU - Neavin, Drew R.

AU - Moyer, Ann

AU - Black, John L.

AU - Bielinski, Suzette J

AU - Scherer, Steven E.

AU - Wang, Liewei M

AU - Weinshilboum, Richard M

AU - Reid, Joel M

PY - 2019/4/1

Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are highly polymorphic pharmacogenes; however, clinically actionable genetic variability in drug metabolism due to these genes has been limited to a few common alleles. The identification and functional characterization of less-common open reading frame sequence variation might help to individualize therapy with drugs that are substrates for the enzymes encoded by these genes. The present study identified seven uncharacterized variants each in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 using next-generation sequence data for 1013 subjects, and functionally characterized the encoded proteins. Constructs were created and transiently expressed in COS-1 cells for the assay of protein concentration and enzyme activities using fluorometric substrates and liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry with tolbutamide (CYP2C9) and (S)-mephenytoin (CYP2C19) as prototypic substrates. The results were compared with the SIFT, Polyphen, and Provean functional prediction software programs. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) activities were also determined. Positive correlations were observed between protein content and fluorometric enzyme activity for variants of CYP2C9 (P < 0.05) and CYP2C19 (P < 0.0005). However, CYP2C9 709G>C and CYP2C19 65A>G activities were much lower than predicted based on protein content. Substrate intrinsic clearance values for CYP2C9 218C>T, 343A>C, and CYP2C19 337G>A, 518C>T, 556C>T, and 557G>A were less than 25% of wild-type allozymes. CPR activity levels were similar for all variants. In summary, sequencing of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in 1013 subjects identified low-frequency variants that had not previously been functionally characterized. In silico predictions were not always consistent with functional assay results. These observations emphasize the need for high-throughput methods for pharmacogene variant mutagenesis and functional characterization.

AB - CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are highly polymorphic pharmacogenes; however, clinically actionable genetic variability in drug metabolism due to these genes has been limited to a few common alleles. The identification and functional characterization of less-common open reading frame sequence variation might help to individualize therapy with drugs that are substrates for the enzymes encoded by these genes. The present study identified seven uncharacterized variants each in CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 using next-generation sequence data for 1013 subjects, and functionally characterized the encoded proteins. Constructs were created and transiently expressed in COS-1 cells for the assay of protein concentration and enzyme activities using fluorometric substrates and liquid chromatography– tandem mass spectrometry with tolbutamide (CYP2C9) and (S)-mephenytoin (CYP2C19) as prototypic substrates. The results were compared with the SIFT, Polyphen, and Provean functional prediction software programs. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) activities were also determined. Positive correlations were observed between protein content and fluorometric enzyme activity for variants of CYP2C9 (P < 0.05) and CYP2C19 (P < 0.0005). However, CYP2C9 709G>C and CYP2C19 65A>G activities were much lower than predicted based on protein content. Substrate intrinsic clearance values for CYP2C9 218C>T, 343A>C, and CYP2C19 337G>A, 518C>T, 556C>T, and 557G>A were less than 25% of wild-type allozymes. CPR activity levels were similar for all variants. In summary, sequencing of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in 1013 subjects identified low-frequency variants that had not previously been functionally characterized. In silico predictions were not always consistent with functional assay results. These observations emphasize the need for high-throughput methods for pharmacogene variant mutagenesis and functional characterization.

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