Pertussis vaccination and the risk of respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalization

Thomas G. Boyce, Amy L. Weaver, Jennifer L. St. Sauver, Astrid E. Woodward-Lee, Judy K. Stancl, Jin Young Park, Steven J. Jacobsen, Robert M. Jacobson, Gregory A. Poland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Animal data suggest an association between recent vaccination with a pertussis-containing vaccine and increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. We sought to determine whether such an association exists in humans by studying a population-based cohort of young children. Patients and Methods: We performed a nested case-control study of 280 children younger than 24 months of age hospitalized with RSV infection in Olmsted County, MN from January 1990 to December 1999. Controls (2 per case) consisted of nonhospitalized residents of Olmsted County matched to cases by date of birth and sex. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the odds of hospitalization for RSV infection among subjects with a recent pertussis-containing vaccination in proximity to the cases' date of hospitalization relative to the odds among subjects with no vaccination. Results: The OR for receipt of a pertussis-containing vaccine within 0 to 6 days of a case's hospitalization for RSV disease was 0.8 (95% CI 0.4-1.8). For the time intervals 7-13, 14-20 and ≥21 days, the OR were 1.3 (95% CI 0.5-3.0), 1.3 (95% CI 0.5-3.2) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.3-1.5), respectively. Adjusting for vaccine delay and for risk status did not alter the findings. The median interval between the most recent pertussis-containing vaccine and the case's date of hospitalization was 40 days for cases and 42.5 days for controls (P = 0.69). Among the RSV cases, pertussis vaccination in the month preceding hospitalization was not a risk factor for oxygen requirement (P = 0.82), intensive care unit admission (P = 0.46) or need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.28). Conclusion: In our study, recent immunization with a pertussis-containing vaccine was not a risk factor for hospitalization for RSV infection. In addition, among children hospitalized with RSV infection, recent pertussis immunization was not associated with a more severe clinical course.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)897-901
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume23
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2004

Keywords

  • Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine
  • Immunization
  • Pertussis
  • Respiratory syncytial virus
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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