Background—There are limited data on the use of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to provide hemodynamic support periprocedurally during transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This study sought to evaluate patients receiving transcatheter aortic valve replacement with concomitant use of CPB/VA-ECMO. Methods and Results—We systematically reviewed the published literature from 2000 to 2018 for studies evaluating adult patients requiring CPB/VA-ECMO periprocedurally during transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Studies reporting short-term and long-term mortality were included. Given the significant methodological and statistical differences between published studies, meta-analysis of the association of CPB/VA-ECMO with mortality was not performed. Of the 537 studies identified, 9 studies representing 5191 patients met our inclusion criteria. Median ages were between 75 and 87 years with 33% to 75% male patients. Where reported, the Edwards SAPIEN™ transcatheter heart valve was the most frequently used. A total of 203 (3.9%) patients received periprocedural hemodynamic support with CPB/VA-ECMO. Common indications for CPB/VA-ECMO included left ventricular or aortic annular rupture, rapid hemodynamic deterioration, aortic regurgitation, cardiac arrest, and left main coronary artery obstruction. The use of CPB/VA-ECMO was predominantly an emergent strategy and was used for durations of 1 to 2 hours. Short-term mortality (in-hospital and 30-day) was 29.8%, and 1-year mortality was 52.4%. Major complications such as bleeding, vascular injury, tamponade, stroke, and renal failure were noted in 10% to 50% of patients. Conclusions—CPB/VA-ECMO was used in 4% in the early experience of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement, most commonly for periprocedural complications. There are limited data on preprocedural planned use of VA-ECMO, and the characteristics of this population remain poorly defined.
- Cardiogenic shock
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Critical care
- Mechanical circulatory support
- Transcatheter valve implantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine