The association of fetal hydrops with Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) has been reported previously. Pericardial fluid accumulation and ascites were also observed in a few young patients with CDG type Ia. Here we describe the clinical and biochemical features in three children developing life-threatening extravascular fluid accumulation. All patients carried severe PMM2 mutations comparable to the earlier reported patients with fetal hydrops. One patient was successfully treated with a pericardial-pleural shunt placement. Pericardial fluid accumulation and generalized oedema resolved temporarily in the other two children on regular albumin infusions and the use of diuretics. Sequential abdominal punctures were unsuccessful in the treatment of the extensive ascites production. The use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents and the application of high dose steroids had no clinical effect. Severe extravascular fluid accumulation progressed to decompensation and death. Biochemical investigations of the abdominal fluid and pericardial fluid demonstrated a high extracellular protein concentration, increased cytokine concentrations and an abnormal transferrin isoelectric focusing pattern characteristic of CDG type I. Our results are consistent with a local activation of the cytokine pathways and subsequent protein transport through the endothelial surface to the extravascular space. Normal glycosylation of cell surface proteins is essential for the normal fluid balance and protein transport through the pericardial and peritoneal membrane. Future therapeutic efforts should be directed to inhibit the abnormal immune response and excessive protein transport in this life-threatening complication of CDG syndrome.
- Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation
- Pericardial effusion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology