Background Venous neointimal hyperplasia and venous stenosis (VS) formation can result in a decrease in arteriovenous fistula (AVF) patency in patients with end-stage renal disease. There are limited therapies that prevent VNH/VS. Systemic delivery of simvastatin has been shown to reduce VNH/VS but local delivery may help decrease the side effects associated with statin use. We determined if microparticles (MP) composed of cyclodextrins loaded with simvastatin (MP-SV) could reduce VS/VNH using a murine arteriovenous fistula model with chronic kidney disease. Methods and Results Male C57BL/6J mice underwent nephrectomy to induce chronic kidney disease. Four weeks later, an arteriovenous fistula was placed and animals were randomized to 3 groups: 20 μL of PBS or 20 μL of PBS with 16.6 mg/mL of either MP or MP-SV. Animals were euthanized 3 days later and the outflow veins were harvested for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and 28 days later for immunohistochemistical staining with morphometric analysis. Doppler ultrasound was performed weekly. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9), transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgf-β1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1) were significantly decreased in MP-SV treated vessels compared with controls. There was a significant decrease in the neointimal area, cell proliferation, inflammation, and fibrosis, with an increase in apoptosis and peak velocity in MP-SV treated outflow veins. MP-SV treated fibroblasts when exposed to hypoxic injury had decreased gene expression of Vegf-A and Mmp-9. Conclusions In experimental arteriovenous fistulas, periadventitial delivery of MP-SV decreased gene expression of Vegf-A, Mmp-9, Tgf-β1 and Mcp-1, VNH/VS, inflammation, and fibrosis.
- arteriovenous fistula
- drug delivery
- vascular remodeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine