From 1987 to 1998, 19 of 416 patients (4.6%) who underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation experienced peri-engraftment (within 5 days of neutrophil recovery) respiratory distress syndrome (PERDS) not attributable to infection, fluid overload, or cardiac dysfunction. The median time from stem cell infusion to onset of PERDS was 11 days (range 4-25). Risk of PERDS or its outcome was not predicted by any pre- or peri-transplant clinical or laboratory feature. The respective median white blood cell and platelet counts at first symptoms were 1.3 × 109/l and 25 × 109/l. No patients had an infectious etiology by bronchoalveolar lavage. Six of the 19 patients had alveolar hemorrhage, which was significantly correlated with high neutrophil count. PERDS was directly implicated in four deaths (21%). Eleven patients received high-dose corticosteroid therapy, including five of the six who required mechanical ventilation. Ten of these patients experienced clinical improvement, which occurred within 24 h in five. The rapid response to corticosteroid treatment and the fact that such therapy was delayed until after intubation in all the mechanically ventilated cases point to a therapeutic benefit.
- Autologous transplantation
- Respiratory distress syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas