Exertional dyspnea is a common complaint for patients seen in pulmonary, cardiac, and general medicine clinics, and elucidating the cause is often challenging, particularly when physical examination, echocardiography, radiography, and pulmonary function test results are inconclusive. Invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing has emerged as the gold standard test to define causes of dyspnea and exertional limitation in this population. In this review, we describe the methods for performing and interpreting invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing, with particular attention to the hemodynamic and blood sampling data as they apply to patients being evaluated for heart failure and pulmonary hypertension.
- exercise testing
- pulmonary function test
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine