Purpose: Management of recurrent prostate cancer necessitates timely diagnosis and accurate localization of the sites of recurrent disease. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of histologic outcomes after 11C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CholPET) to increase the positive predictive value and specificity of CholPET in identifying imaging predictors of malignant and benign nodal disease to better inform clinical decision making regarding local therapy planning. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of patients undergoing CholPET followed by percutaneous core needle biopsy between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2016. A total of 153 patients were identified who underwent 166 biopsy procedures. Patient, CholPET, procedural, and pathologic characteristics were recorded. Results: A total of 157 biopsies were technically successful, and 110 (70.1%; 95% confidence interval, 62.2-77.1) yielded histologic results abnormal for metastatic prostate cancer. Lesion location, lesion maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV ratio (calculated as the ratio of SUVmax to SUV mean in the right atrium), prostate-specific antigen, lesion short axis length, total Gleason score, and castration resistance were all associated with abnormal biopsy results (P values <.001, <.001, <.001,.02,.02,.02, and.015, respectively). External iliac, common iliac, and inguinal sites were associated with much lower rates of histologic positivity (mean [95% confidence interval], 51.2% [35.1-67.1], 46.2% [19.2-74.9], and 33.3% [7.5-70.1]), respectively. Conclusions: In a cohort of patients in whom core needle biopsy was performed after CholPET, characteristics of choline localization including node location, SUVmax, lesion–to–blood pool SUV ratio, prostate-specific antigen, total Gleason score, and castration resistance were significantly associated with abnormal biopsy results for metastatic disease on CholPET. Relatively high false positive rates were found in common iliac, external iliac, and inguinal lymph node locations. Histologic confirmation of these sites should be strongly considered in the appropriate clinical scenario before designing additional local therapy plans.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging