Introduction: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) accounts for approximately 3% of gastrointestinal malignancies and is associated with a high mortality rate. Recent progress in the understanding of cholangiocarcinoma tumorigenesis and molecular markers has led to the development of several targeted therapies applicable to this disease. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene fusion or translocation, resulting in constitutive activation of the FGFR tyrosine kinase, has been identified as a driver of oncogenesis in 10–15% of intrahepatic CCA. Pemigatinib is an FGFR inhibitor that has demonstrated survival benefit in the second line setting for treatment of CCA with FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement refractory to chemotherapy. Pemigatinib was the first targeted therapy to be approved by the FDA for treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Areas covered: This article reviews FGFR and its dysregulation in oncogenesis, FGFR inhibitors, especially pemigatinib, utilized in treatment of CCA, common adverse events associated with FGFR inhibitors, and future directions in the field of targeted drug development for CCA. Expert opinion: FGFR inhibitors, including pemigatinib, have shown promise in the management of CCA with FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement; however, acquired resistance remains a major barrier in the field of FGFR inhibitors and requires further study.
- FGFR2 fusion
- fibroblast growth factor receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)