Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation

Di Zhang, Chris H. Cagnon, J. Pablo Villablanca, Cynthia H McCollough, Dianna D. Cody, Donna M. Stevens, Maria Zankl, John J. Demarco, Adam C. Turner, Maryam Khatonabadi, Michael F. McNitt-Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to accurately estimate the radiation dose to skin and the eye lens from clinical CT brain perfusion studies, investigate how well scanner output (expressed as volume CT dose index [CTDI vol]) matches these estimated doses, and investigate the efficacy of eye lens dose reduction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on a voxelized patient model and 64-MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. A range of clinical protocols was evaluated. CTDI vol for each scanner was obtained from the scanner console. Dose reduction to the eye lens was evaluated for various gantry tilt angles as well as scan locations. RESULTS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose ranged from 81 mGy to 348 mGy, depending on the scanner and protocol used. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were observed to be 66-79% and 59-63%, respectively, of the CTDI vol values reported by the scanners. The eye lens dose was significantly reduced when the eye lenses were not directly irradiated. CONCLUSION. CTDI vol should not be interpreted as patient dose; this study has shown it to overestimate dose to the skin or eye lens. These results may be used to provide more accurate estimates of actual dose to ensure that protocols are operated safely below thresholds. Tilting the gantry or moving the scanning region further away from the eyes are effective for reducing lens dose in clinical practice. These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)412-417
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Volume198
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2012

Fingerprint

Crystalline Lens
Perfusion
Radiation
Skin
Brain
Monte Carlo Method
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Clinical Protocols
Lenses
Anatomy

Keywords

  • CT perfusion
  • Eye lens dose
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Radiation dose
  • Skin dose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Zhang, D., Cagnon, C. H., Villablanca, J. P., McCollough, C. H., Cody, D. D., Stevens, D. M., ... McNitt-Gray, M. F. (2012). Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation. American Journal of Roentgenology, 198(2), 412-417. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.11.7230

Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation. / Zhang, Di; Cagnon, Chris H.; Villablanca, J. Pablo; McCollough, Cynthia H; Cody, Dianna D.; Stevens, Donna M.; Zankl, Maria; Demarco, John J.; Turner, Adam C.; Khatonabadi, Maryam; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

In: American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. 198, No. 2, 02.2012, p. 412-417.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zhang, D, Cagnon, CH, Villablanca, JP, McCollough, CH, Cody, DD, Stevens, DM, Zankl, M, Demarco, JJ, Turner, AC, Khatonabadi, M & McNitt-Gray, MF 2012, 'Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation', American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 412-417. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.11.7230
Zhang, Di ; Cagnon, Chris H. ; Villablanca, J. Pablo ; McCollough, Cynthia H ; Cody, Dianna D. ; Stevens, Donna M. ; Zankl, Maria ; Demarco, John J. ; Turner, Adam C. ; Khatonabadi, Maryam ; McNitt-Gray, Michael F. / Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation. In: American Journal of Roentgenology. 2012 ; Vol. 198, No. 2. pp. 412-417.
@article{5d679aa49c0943389781c9185fd7cff1,
title = "Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to accurately estimate the radiation dose to skin and the eye lens from clinical CT brain perfusion studies, investigate how well scanner output (expressed as volume CT dose index [CTDI vol]) matches these estimated doses, and investigate the efficacy of eye lens dose reduction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on a voxelized patient model and 64-MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. A range of clinical protocols was evaluated. CTDI vol for each scanner was obtained from the scanner console. Dose reduction to the eye lens was evaluated for various gantry tilt angles as well as scan locations. RESULTS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose ranged from 81 mGy to 348 mGy, depending on the scanner and protocol used. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were observed to be 66-79{\%} and 59-63{\%}, respectively, of the CTDI vol values reported by the scanners. The eye lens dose was significantly reduced when the eye lenses were not directly irradiated. CONCLUSION. CTDI vol should not be interpreted as patient dose; this study has shown it to overestimate dose to the skin or eye lens. These results may be used to provide more accurate estimates of actual dose to ensure that protocols are operated safely below thresholds. Tilting the gantry or moving the scanning region further away from the eyes are effective for reducing lens dose in clinical practice. These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy.",
keywords = "CT perfusion, Eye lens dose, Monte Carlo simulation, Radiation dose, Skin dose",
author = "Di Zhang and Cagnon, {Chris H.} and Villablanca, {J. Pablo} and McCollough, {Cynthia H} and Cody, {Dianna D.} and Stevens, {Donna M.} and Maria Zankl and Demarco, {John J.} and Turner, {Adam C.} and Maryam Khatonabadi and McNitt-Gray, {Michael F.}",
year = "2012",
month = "2",
doi = "10.2214/AJR.11.7230",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "198",
pages = "412--417",
journal = "American Journal of Roentgenology",
issn = "0361-803X",
publisher = "American Roentgen Ray Society",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Peak skin and eye lens radiation dose from brain perfusion CT based on Monte Carlo simulation

AU - Zhang, Di

AU - Cagnon, Chris H.

AU - Villablanca, J. Pablo

AU - McCollough, Cynthia H

AU - Cody, Dianna D.

AU - Stevens, Donna M.

AU - Zankl, Maria

AU - Demarco, John J.

AU - Turner, Adam C.

AU - Khatonabadi, Maryam

AU - McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

PY - 2012/2

Y1 - 2012/2

N2 - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to accurately estimate the radiation dose to skin and the eye lens from clinical CT brain perfusion studies, investigate how well scanner output (expressed as volume CT dose index [CTDI vol]) matches these estimated doses, and investigate the efficacy of eye lens dose reduction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on a voxelized patient model and 64-MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. A range of clinical protocols was evaluated. CTDI vol for each scanner was obtained from the scanner console. Dose reduction to the eye lens was evaluated for various gantry tilt angles as well as scan locations. RESULTS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose ranged from 81 mGy to 348 mGy, depending on the scanner and protocol used. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were observed to be 66-79% and 59-63%, respectively, of the CTDI vol values reported by the scanners. The eye lens dose was significantly reduced when the eye lenses were not directly irradiated. CONCLUSION. CTDI vol should not be interpreted as patient dose; this study has shown it to overestimate dose to the skin or eye lens. These results may be used to provide more accurate estimates of actual dose to ensure that protocols are operated safely below thresholds. Tilting the gantry or moving the scanning region further away from the eyes are effective for reducing lens dose in clinical practice. These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy.

AB - OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to accurately estimate the radiation dose to skin and the eye lens from clinical CT brain perfusion studies, investigate how well scanner output (expressed as volume CT dose index [CTDI vol]) matches these estimated doses, and investigate the efficacy of eye lens dose reduction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation methods on a voxelized patient model and 64-MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. A range of clinical protocols was evaluated. CTDI vol for each scanner was obtained from the scanner console. Dose reduction to the eye lens was evaluated for various gantry tilt angles as well as scan locations. RESULTS. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose ranged from 81 mGy to 348 mGy, depending on the scanner and protocol used. Peak skin dose and eye lens dose were observed to be 66-79% and 59-63%, respectively, of the CTDI vol values reported by the scanners. The eye lens dose was significantly reduced when the eye lenses were not directly irradiated. CONCLUSION. CTDI vol should not be interpreted as patient dose; this study has shown it to overestimate dose to the skin or eye lens. These results may be used to provide more accurate estimates of actual dose to ensure that protocols are operated safely below thresholds. Tilting the gantry or moving the scanning region further away from the eyes are effective for reducing lens dose in clinical practice. These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy.

KW - CT perfusion

KW - Eye lens dose

KW - Monte Carlo simulation

KW - Radiation dose

KW - Skin dose

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84862932822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84862932822&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2214/AJR.11.7230

DO - 10.2214/AJR.11.7230

M3 - Article

C2 - 22268186

AN - SCOPUS:84862932822

VL - 198

SP - 412

EP - 417

JO - American Journal of Roentgenology

JF - American Journal of Roentgenology

SN - 0361-803X

IS - 2

ER -