Pathogenese der Vaskulitis mittlerer und großer Gefäße

Translated title of the contribution: Pathogenesis of medium- and large-vessel vasculitis

C. M. Weyand, J. J. Goronzy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Giant cell arteritis (GCA), is a systemic vasculitis which preferentially targets large and medium branches of the upper-body aorta. Typical clinical manifestations result from arterial stenosis/occlusion causing blindness, stroke and aortic arch syndrome. Aortic involvement leads to dissection and aneurysm. On the cellular and molecular level, GCA is a sequel of abnormal innate and adaptive immune responses that occur in the specialized tissue niche of the arterial wall. Based on recent pathogenic studies, a novel disease model for GCA is emerging. It is now understood that the series of pathogenic events begins with dendritic cells (DC) indigenous to the artery's outer wall, leading to inflammatory vasculopathy. Placed close to the vasa vasorum, vascular DC are highly sensitive in recognizing pathogen-associated motifs assigning immune monitoring functions to blood vessels. Thus the large vessels are actively involved in immune monitoring. Each vascular territory expresses a unique profile of pathogen-sensing receptors, emphasizing functional diversity amongst structurally similar arteries. Innate immune stimulators can transform vascular DC into efficient antigen-presenting cells, attracting, activating, and instructing T lymphocytes to acquire tissue-invasive features. Macrophages provide critical tissue-damaging effector functions, directly injuring wall-residing cells and promoting a remodeling process that leads to intimal hyperplasia and luminal occlusion. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GCA need to focus on the key position of vascular DC and the signals that break the immunoprivileged state of the vessel wall.

Translated title of the contributionPathogenesis of medium- and large-vessel vasculitis
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)100-107
Number of pages8
JournalZeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
Volume68
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009

Keywords

  • Dendritic cells
  • Giant cell arteritis
  • T-cells
  • Takayasu arteritis
  • Vasculitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology

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