Pacemaker, defibrillator, and VAD infections

Stacey Rizza, James M. Steckelberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Implantable cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators have greatly decreased the morbidity and mortality rates associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Increasing numbers of people are receiving these devices as the procedures for implantation and device technology improve; as a result, increasing numbers of devices are at risk for infection. The cumulative risk of pacemaker- and defibrillator-related infections after implantation has been estimated to be between 1% and 19% over the lifetime of the device. Infection of these implantable devices is associated with excess morbidity, including prolonged hospital stays and mortality rates as high as 30% in one series.The first single-chamber permanent pacemakers were introduced for clinical use in the late 1950s. Today, it is estimated that more than 1 million people in the United States have permanent pacemakers. The pacemaker itself consists of a generator, placed below the pectoral muscle, that serves as the power source. An electrical stimulus from the generator travels through an insulated electrical conductor to the electrodes, which deliver the impulse to the endocardium or epicardial surface. Early implantable cardioverter defibrillator devices (ICDs) required surgical placement of epicardial defibrillation patches, which was facilitated by sternotomy, lateral thoracotomy, or subxiphoid approach. Since 1988, transvenous placement of endocardial coils, similar to pacemakers, has become routine practice. In addition, generator packs have become smaller, allowing for pectoral placement as opposed to the traditional abdominal placement of larger, older generators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Infectious Disease
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages293-296
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9780511722240
ISBN (Print)9780521871129
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

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Defibrillators
Equipment and Supplies
Infection
Pectoralis Muscles
Morbidity
Electric Power Supplies
Endocardium
Sternotomy
Mortality
Implantable Defibrillators
Thoracotomy
Hospital Mortality
Cardiac Arrhythmias
Length of Stay
Electrodes
Technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Rizza, S., & Steckelberg, J. M. (2010). Pacemaker, defibrillator, and VAD infections. In Clinical Infectious Disease (pp. 293-296). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511722240.042

Pacemaker, defibrillator, and VAD infections. / Rizza, Stacey; Steckelberg, James M.

Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 293-296.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Rizza, S & Steckelberg, JM 2010, Pacemaker, defibrillator, and VAD infections. in Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, pp. 293-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511722240.042
Rizza S, Steckelberg JM. Pacemaker, defibrillator, and VAD infections. In Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press. 2010. p. 293-296 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511722240.042
Rizza, Stacey ; Steckelberg, James M. / Pacemaker, defibrillator, and VAD infections. Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, 2010. pp. 293-296
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