p53 activation by knockdown technologies

Mara E. Robu, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Soraya Beiraghi, Charles Brenner, Steven A. Farber, Stephen C. Ekker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

733 Scopus citations

Abstract

Morpholino phosphorodiamidate antisense oligonucleotides (MOs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are commonly used platforms to study gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Both technologies, however, can elicit undesirable off-target effects. We have used several model genes to study these effects in detail in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Using the zebrafish embryo as a template, correct and mistargeting effects are readily discernible through direct comparison of MO-injected animals with well-studied mutants. We show here indistinguishable off-targeting effects for both maternal and zygotic mRNAs and for both translational and splice-site targeting MOs. The major off-targeting effect is mediated through p53 activation, as detected through the transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, acridine orange, and p21 transcriptional activation assays. Concurrent knockdown of p53 specifically ameliorates the cell death induced by MO off-targeting. Importantly, reversal of p53-dependent cell death by p53 knockdown does not affect specific loss of gene function, such as the cell death caused by loss of function of chordin. Interestingly, quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, microarrays and whole-mount in situ hybridization assays show that MO off-targeting effects are accompanied by diagnostic transcription of an N-terminal truncated p53 isoform that uses a recently recognized internal p53 promoter. We show here that MO off-targeting results in induction of a p53-dependent cell death pathway. p53 activation has also recently been shown to be an unspecified off-target effect of siRNAs. Both commonly used knockdown technologies can thus induce secondary but sequence-specific p53 activation. p53 inhibition could potentially be applicable to other systems to suppress off-target effects caused by other knockdown technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)787-801
Number of pages15
JournalPLoS genetics
Volume3
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Cancer Research

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    Robu, M. E., Larson, J. D., Nasevicius, A., Beiraghi, S., Brenner, C., Farber, S. A., & Ekker, S. C. (2007). p53 activation by knockdown technologies. PLoS genetics, 3(5), 787-801. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0030078