Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: A longitudinal cohort study

Nicholas M. Edwards, Gregory D. Myer, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Jessica G. Woo, Philip R. Khoury, Timothy Hewett, Stephen R. Daniels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods: Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65¡ãF or ≥ 65F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results: Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P <.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P <.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a 5-minute daily reduction in moderatevigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions: Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1074-1081
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Activity and Health
Volume12
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 19 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Longitudinal Studies
Cohort Studies
Exercise
Temperature
Weather
Heating
Snow
Rain
Regression Analysis
Prospective Studies
Research

Keywords

  • Barriers
  • Cooling degree
  • Environment
  • Heating degree
  • Weather

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children : A longitudinal cohort study. / Edwards, Nicholas M.; Myer, Gregory D.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Woo, Jessica G.; Khoury, Philip R.; Hewett, Timothy; Daniels, Stephen R.

In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Vol. 12, No. 8, 19.10.2015, p. 1074-1081.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Edwards, Nicholas M. ; Myer, Gregory D. ; Kalkwarf, Heidi J. ; Woo, Jessica G. ; Khoury, Philip R. ; Hewett, Timothy ; Daniels, Stephen R. / Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children : A longitudinal cohort study. In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2015 ; Vol. 12, No. 8. pp. 1074-1081.
@article{7e7eee6fa27943c4a5072e146a738e57,
title = "Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children: A longitudinal cohort study",
abstract = "Objective: Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods: Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65¡{\~a}F or ≥ 65F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results: Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P <.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P <.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a 5-minute daily reduction in moderatevigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions: Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies.",
keywords = "Barriers, Cooling degree, Environment, Heating degree, Weather",
author = "Edwards, {Nicholas M.} and Myer, {Gregory D.} and Kalkwarf, {Heidi J.} and Woo, {Jessica G.} and Khoury, {Philip R.} and Timothy Hewett and Daniels, {Stephen R.}",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1123/jpah.2014-0125",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "1074--1081",
journal = "Journal of Physical Activity and Health",
issn = "1543-3080",
publisher = "Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Outdoor temperature, precipitation, and wind speed affect physical activity levels in children

T2 - A longitudinal cohort study

AU - Edwards, Nicholas M.

AU - Myer, Gregory D.

AU - Kalkwarf, Heidi J.

AU - Woo, Jessica G.

AU - Khoury, Philip R.

AU - Hewett, Timothy

AU - Daniels, Stephen R.

PY - 2015/10/19

Y1 - 2015/10/19

N2 - Objective: Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods: Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65¡ãF or ≥ 65F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results: Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P <.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P <.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a 5-minute daily reduction in moderatevigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions: Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies.

AB - Objective: Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood. Methods: Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65¡ãF or ≥ 65F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity. Results: Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P <.0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P <.0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a 5-minute daily reduction in moderatevigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions: Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies.

KW - Barriers

KW - Cooling degree

KW - Environment

KW - Heating degree

KW - Weather

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84950139977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84950139977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1123/jpah.2014-0125

DO - 10.1123/jpah.2014-0125

M3 - Article

C2 - 25423667

AN - SCOPUS:84950139977

VL - 12

SP - 1074

EP - 1081

JO - Journal of Physical Activity and Health

JF - Journal of Physical Activity and Health

SN - 1543-3080

IS - 8

ER -