Background: Consolidative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) is commonly used for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We studied AHCT use and outcomes in patients with MM ≥75 years old. Methods: Patients with MM ≥75 years old receiving AHCT between 2013 and 2017 in the United States were identified using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. Relapse and/or progression (REL), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were modeled using Cox proportional hazards models. Covariates used were age, sex, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI), International Staging System and/or Durie-Salmon stage, high-risk cytogenetics, melphalan dose, and disease status at and 1 year after transplant. AHCT utilization rate using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to estimate specific incidence among ≥75 years old by race and gender. Results: Of 360 patients, 63% were male, 84% were White, 56% had KPS <90, and 57% had HCT-CI ≥3. The 100-day transplant-related mortality was 1% (0%-2%) with a 2-year REL rate of 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22%-33%), PFS of 66% (95% CI, 60%-72%), and OS of 83% (95% CI, 78%-87%). On multivariate analysis, only high-risk cytogenetics was associated with REL risk and decreased PFS. In White males, transplant utilization rate was 5.2%-5.8% compared to 3.5%-4.0% in African American males (P =.02). There was 3.37-3.79% transplant utilization in White females compared to 1.88-2.12% in African American females (P <.01). Conclusions: The use of AHCT was associated with excellent 2-year outcomes in this selected MM population ≥75 years old. Transplant utilization for patients ≥75 years old remains low with significant racial and gender disparities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research