Vascular malformations result from an arrest of development of a normal vascular structure or from abnormal growth of a vascular structure. Treatment continues to be a challenge. We sought to study the outcomes of sclerotherapy and embolization for vascular malformations. We reviewed clinical data of all patients treated with sclerotherapy or embolization for arteriovenous or venous malformations between 2006 and 2010 at Mayo Clinic. Follow-up information was obtained from clinical charts and a questionnaire sent to all patients. Overall, 60 patients (24 male and 36 female; mean age 31.7 years; range, 5.6 to 72.4 years) had 163 unique sclerotherapy or embolization procedures for lesions involving the lower extremity (55%), upper extremity (18.3%), pelvis (11.7%), abdomen (5%), chest (5%), back (3.3%), and multiple locations (1.7%). Thirty-one patients had low-flow venous malformations and 29 patients had high-flow arteriovenous malformations. Twenty-four patients required more than three sessions. The most common indication for intervention was pain (57 of 60 [95%]). Sixteen patients (27%) had documented or patient-reported complications. There was no significant difference in complication rates or lesion size between patients with low-flow or high-flow lesions. There were no procedural deaths. Mean available follow-up was 2.0 ± 1.3 years (range, 0.5 to 5.0 years). Median pain scores at most recent follow-up decreased significantly (P<001). Eighty-three percent of the responders (24 of 29) would recommend treatment to others. With appropriate patient selection, sclerotherapy and embolization can decrease the pain of patients with arteriovenous and venous malformations. Multiple interventions might be necessary. Practitioners should be aware of the potential complications and counsel their patients about these risks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine