Background: Type II endoleaks (T2ELs) are common following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR). Embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) may present an effective treatment alternative for T2ELs. Due to limited data supporting its use, we sought to analyze outcomes of Onyx embolization for T2ELs. Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive patients treated for T2ELs utilizing Onyx embolization agent from 2009–2018. All pre- and post-Onyx intervention CT scans were analyzed for diameter and volume changes with 3D reconstruction software. The primary outcomes were change in maximum AAA diameter and volume. Secondary outcomes included additional interventions, rupture, and mortality. A subset analysis was performed with patients with isolated T2ELs (no other types of endoleaks present). Results: We identified 85 patients (73 males, mean age 77.6 ± 7.6 years) who underwent 112 Onyx interventions. Average time to first Onyx intervention after index EVAR was 3.3 ± 2.6 years and average sac growth was 6.3 ± 6.7 mm. Patients underwent mean 1.3 Onyx interventions using a mean of 4.9 ± 4.7 ml for treatment. Three complications occurred (Onyx extravasation, colon ischemia, and access site hematoma). Mean follow-up was 2.5 ± 2.1 years after initial Onyx treatment. At the most recent follow-up, sac diameter stabilization was seen in 47% and reduction >5 mm was seen in 19%. Sac growth of >5 mm was seen in 34% of patients following the first Onyx intervention. In our subset of isolated T2EL, 72% had sac stabilization or reduction >5 mm. Four patients experienced a ruptured aneurysm (3 had active type 1 endoleaks). Rupture-free survival was 95% at 5 years, and overall survival was 54% at 5 years. Notably, increasing Onyx interventions were not associated with sac stabilization or reduction (OR 0.6, P = 0.1). On multivariable analysis, AAA sac diameter stabilization or reduction was independently associated with BMI >30 kg/m2 (OR 4.2, P = 0.01) and having only 1 Onyx intervention (OR 3.8, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Onyx for embolization of T2ELs resulted in AAA sac diameter stabilization or reduction in 66% of patients, and up to 72% in isolated T2ELs. Further, increasing Onyx interventions were not associated with either aneurysm sac stabilization or reduction. Given its similar outcomes to other embolization strategies in the literature, Onyx embolization for management of T2ELs needs to be judiciously considered, particularly for T2ELs persisting after an initial Onyx embolization intervention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine