Background: The enhanced esthetics and demonstrated oncologic safety of nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) in selected patients have resulted in increased rates among patients with locally advanced breast cancer and/or additional risk factors (obesity, prior radiation, surgery). Limited data exist on complication and reconstruction success rates in a contemporary patient cohort with expanded indications for NSM. Methods: With institutional review board (IRB) approval, patients treated from 2009 to 2017 with NSM were identified from our prospective breast surgery registry. Main outcomes were 30-day complications requiring treatment and 1-year reconstruction failure rates. Risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. Results: We evaluated 1301 breasts in 769 women undergoing NSM for cancer (n = 555) or risk reduction (n = 746) with median age of 48 (range 21–77) years. The overall 30-day complication rate was 7.5% (97/1301 breasts) and declined from 14.8% in 2009 to 6.3% in 2017 (p < 0.001), while the proportion of patients with obesity (p = 0.007) and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.001) increased. Prior radiation [odds ratio (OR) 2.35, p = 0.04], recent/current smoking (OR 3.37, p < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.28 per 5-kg/m2 increase, p = 0.03) significantly increased 30-day complication rates. Reconstruction success at 1 year was 96.7%. Prior radiation (OR 5.65, p < 0.001), axillary surgery (OR 2.55, p = 0.006), and postoperative adjuvant radiation (OR 3.22, p = 0.007) significantly affected 1-year reconstruction failure. Conclusion: The 30-day complication rates of NSM decreased, despite broadened indications among higher-risk patients over time. These data confirm a team learning curve with NSM and also demonstrate that the nipple-sparing approach is suitable for appropriately selected higher-risk patients for both risk reduction and cancer treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas