Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of radical prostatectomy for the rarest and most poorly differentiated prostate tumors of all: those with Gleason score 10. Controversy exists as to which form of therapy is most effective for high-grade prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with pathologic Gleason score 10 PCa treated at our institution with radical prostatectomy from 1977 to 1999. All pathology specimens were reviewed by a urologic pathologist, and 13 cases with true Gleason score 10 PCa were identified. The preoperative covariables (prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical stage), perioperative covariables (pathologic stage, margin status, and tumor ploidy), and postoperative covariables (prostate-specific antigen level and adjuvant and salvage treatments) were assessed with respect to the oncologic outcomes. Results: The median follow-up was 4.2 years. Preoperatively, only 4 of the 13 cases were correctly identified at biopsy, and the median preoperative prostate-specific antigen level was 4.5 ng/mL (interquartile range 0.3 to 12.5). Pathologic examination showed a small cell component in 7 cases, seminal vesicle invasion in 11, and positive lymph nodes in 3. Six patients developed recurrent PCa: three local, two systemic, and one biochemical recurrence. The biochemical recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival rate at 5 years was 53.8% and 76.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Gleason score 10 PCa is a highly aggressive disease that is usually lethal if managed conservatively. The results of the present study have provided some evidence that radical prostatectomy may be of benefit to patients with Gleason score 10 PCa.
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