Outcomes in children with clostridium difficile infection: Results from a nationwide survey

Arjun Gupta, Darrell Spencer Pardi, Larry M. Baddour, Sahil Khanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Hospital- and population-based studies demonstrate an increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children; although pediatric CDI outcomes are incompletely understood. We analysed United States National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data to study CDI in hospitalized children. Methods: NHDS data for 2005-2009 (demographics, diagnoses and discharge status) were obtained; cases and comorbidities were identified using ICD-9 codes. Weighted univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to ascertain incidence of CDI; associations between CDI and outcomes [length of stay (LOS), colectomy, all-cause in-hospital mortality and discharge to a care facility (DTCF)]. Results: Of an estimated 13.8 million pediatric inpatients; 46 176 had CDI; median age was 3 years; overall incidence was 33.5/10 000 hospitalizations. The annual frequency of CDI did not vary from 2005 to 2009 (0.24-0.43%; P = 0.64). On univariate analyses, children with CDI had a longer median LOS (6 vs 2 days), higher rates of colectomy [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.4], mortality (OR 2.5; 95% CI 2.3-2.7), and DTCF (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.6-1.7) (all P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, CDI was an independent and the strongest predictor of increased LOS (adjusted mean difference, 6.4 days; 95% CI 5.4-7.4), higher rates of colectomy (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.5), mortality (OR 2.3; 95% CI 2.2-2.5), and DTCF (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.6-1.8) (all P < 0.0001). On excluding infants from the analysis, children with CDI had higher rates of mortality, DTCF and longer LOS than children without CDI. Conclusions: Despite increased awareness and advancements in management, CDI remains a significant problem and is associated with increased LOS, colectomy, in-hospital mortality and DTCF in hospitalized children.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-298
Number of pages6
JournalGastroenterology Report
Volume4
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

Fingerprint

Clostridium Infections
Clostridium difficile
Confidence Intervals
Colectomy
Odds Ratio
Length of Stay
Health Care Surveys
Hospitalized Child
International Classification of Diseases
Hospital Mortality
Mortality
Surveys and Questionnaires
Comorbidity
Incidence
Pediatrics
State Hospitals
Inpatients
Hospitalization

Keywords

  • Children
  • Clostridium difficile infection
  • Epidemiology
  • Outcomes
  • Pediatric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Outcomes in children with clostridium difficile infection : Results from a nationwide survey. / Gupta, Arjun; Pardi, Darrell Spencer; Baddour, Larry M.; Khanna, Sahil.

In: Gastroenterology Report, Vol. 4, No. 4, 01.11.2016, p. 293-298.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gupta, Arjun ; Pardi, Darrell Spencer ; Baddour, Larry M. ; Khanna, Sahil. / Outcomes in children with clostridium difficile infection : Results from a nationwide survey. In: Gastroenterology Report. 2016 ; Vol. 4, No. 4. pp. 293-298.
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abstract = "Objective: Hospital- and population-based studies demonstrate an increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children; although pediatric CDI outcomes are incompletely understood. We analysed United States National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data to study CDI in hospitalized children. Methods: NHDS data for 2005-2009 (demographics, diagnoses and discharge status) were obtained; cases and comorbidities were identified using ICD-9 codes. Weighted univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to ascertain incidence of CDI; associations between CDI and outcomes [length of stay (LOS), colectomy, all-cause in-hospital mortality and discharge to a care facility (DTCF)]. Results: Of an estimated 13.8 million pediatric inpatients; 46 176 had CDI; median age was 3 years; overall incidence was 33.5/10 000 hospitalizations. The annual frequency of CDI did not vary from 2005 to 2009 (0.24-0.43{\%}; P = 0.64). On univariate analyses, children with CDI had a longer median LOS (6 vs 2 days), higher rates of colectomy [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.4], mortality (OR 2.5; 95{\%} CI 2.3-2.7), and DTCF (OR 1.6; 95{\%} CI 1.6-1.7) (all P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, CDI was an independent and the strongest predictor of increased LOS (adjusted mean difference, 6.4 days; 95{\%} CI 5.4-7.4), higher rates of colectomy (OR 2.1; 95{\%} CI 1.8-2.5), mortality (OR 2.3; 95{\%} CI 2.2-2.5), and DTCF (OR 1.7; 95{\%} CI 1.6-1.8) (all P < 0.0001). On excluding infants from the analysis, children with CDI had higher rates of mortality, DTCF and longer LOS than children without CDI. Conclusions: Despite increased awareness and advancements in management, CDI remains a significant problem and is associated with increased LOS, colectomy, in-hospital mortality and DTCF in hospitalized children.",
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AU - Gupta, Arjun

AU - Pardi, Darrell Spencer

AU - Baddour, Larry M.

AU - Khanna, Sahil

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N2 - Objective: Hospital- and population-based studies demonstrate an increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children; although pediatric CDI outcomes are incompletely understood. We analysed United States National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data to study CDI in hospitalized children. Methods: NHDS data for 2005-2009 (demographics, diagnoses and discharge status) were obtained; cases and comorbidities were identified using ICD-9 codes. Weighted univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to ascertain incidence of CDI; associations between CDI and outcomes [length of stay (LOS), colectomy, all-cause in-hospital mortality and discharge to a care facility (DTCF)]. Results: Of an estimated 13.8 million pediatric inpatients; 46 176 had CDI; median age was 3 years; overall incidence was 33.5/10 000 hospitalizations. The annual frequency of CDI did not vary from 2005 to 2009 (0.24-0.43%; P = 0.64). On univariate analyses, children with CDI had a longer median LOS (6 vs 2 days), higher rates of colectomy [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.4], mortality (OR 2.5; 95% CI 2.3-2.7), and DTCF (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.6-1.7) (all P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, CDI was an independent and the strongest predictor of increased LOS (adjusted mean difference, 6.4 days; 95% CI 5.4-7.4), higher rates of colectomy (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.5), mortality (OR 2.3; 95% CI 2.2-2.5), and DTCF (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.6-1.8) (all P < 0.0001). On excluding infants from the analysis, children with CDI had higher rates of mortality, DTCF and longer LOS than children without CDI. Conclusions: Despite increased awareness and advancements in management, CDI remains a significant problem and is associated with increased LOS, colectomy, in-hospital mortality and DTCF in hospitalized children.

AB - Objective: Hospital- and population-based studies demonstrate an increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children; although pediatric CDI outcomes are incompletely understood. We analysed United States National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) data to study CDI in hospitalized children. Methods: NHDS data for 2005-2009 (demographics, diagnoses and discharge status) were obtained; cases and comorbidities were identified using ICD-9 codes. Weighted univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to ascertain incidence of CDI; associations between CDI and outcomes [length of stay (LOS), colectomy, all-cause in-hospital mortality and discharge to a care facility (DTCF)]. Results: Of an estimated 13.8 million pediatric inpatients; 46 176 had CDI; median age was 3 years; overall incidence was 33.5/10 000 hospitalizations. The annual frequency of CDI did not vary from 2005 to 2009 (0.24-0.43%; P = 0.64). On univariate analyses, children with CDI had a longer median LOS (6 vs 2 days), higher rates of colectomy [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.4], mortality (OR 2.5; 95% CI 2.3-2.7), and DTCF (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.6-1.7) (all P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, CDI was an independent and the strongest predictor of increased LOS (adjusted mean difference, 6.4 days; 95% CI 5.4-7.4), higher rates of colectomy (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.8-2.5), mortality (OR 2.3; 95% CI 2.2-2.5), and DTCF (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.6-1.8) (all P < 0.0001). On excluding infants from the analysis, children with CDI had higher rates of mortality, DTCF and longer LOS than children without CDI. Conclusions: Despite increased awareness and advancements in management, CDI remains a significant problem and is associated with increased LOS, colectomy, in-hospital mortality and DTCF in hospitalized children.

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