Objectives: To identify which patients with macroscopic bladder-infiltrating T4 prostate cancer (PCa) might have favourable outcomes when treated with radical cystectomy (RC). Materials and Methods: We evaluated 62 patients with cT4cN0-1 cM0 PCa treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection between 1972 and 2011. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used to depict survival rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis tested the association between predictors and progression-free, PCa-specific and overall survival. Results: Of the 62 patients, 19 (30.6%) did not have clinical progression during follow-up, two (3.2%) had local recurrence, and 32 (51.6%) had haematogenous and nine (14.5%) combined pelvic and distant metastasis. Forty patients (64.5%) died, 34 (54.8%) from PCa and six (9.7%) from other causes. The median (range) survival time of the 19 patients who were metastasis-free at last follow-up was 86 (1-314) months, 8/19 patients had a follow-up of >5 years, and five patients survived metastasis-free for >15 years. Patients without seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) had the best outcomes, with an estimated 10-year PCa-specific survival of 75% compared with 24% for patients with SVI. Conclusion: For cT4 PCa RC can be an appropriate treatment for local control and part of a multimodality-treatment approach. Although recurrences are probable, these do not necessarily translate into cancer-specific death. Men without SVI had a 75% 10-year PCa-specific survival. Although outcomes for patients with SVI are not as favourable, there can be good local control; however, these patients are at higher risk of progression and may need more aggressive systemic treatment.
- High-risk prostate cancer
- Locally advanced prostate cancer
- Multimodality treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas