Outcome of fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction and normal amniotic fluid volume in second trimester of pregnancy

A. A. Nassr, A. A. Shamshirsaz, H. Erfani, J. Espinoza, M. Sanz Cortes, C. J. Koh, D. R. Roth, J. R. Angelo, G. T. Mandy, M. C. Braun, Rodrigo Ruano, M. A. Belfort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Congenital lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) is a rare condition with high perinatal mortality and morbidity when associated with severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios in the second trimester of pregnancy. Severe pulmonary hypoplasia and end-stage renal disease are the underlying causes of poor neonatal outcome in these cases. However, little is known about the subset of fetal LUTO that is associated with a normal volume of amniotic fluid at midgestation. The objective of the current study was to describe the natural history, underlying causes, survival and postnatal renal function outcomes in pregnancies with fetal LUTO and normal amniotic fluid volume during the second trimester of pregnancy. Methods: This was a retrospective study of all pregnancies with fetal LUTO and normal amniotic fluid volume in the second trimester that received prenatal and postnatal care at our quaternary care institution between 2013 and 2017. Data on demographic characteristics, fetal interventions, perinatal survival, need for neonatal respiratory support, postnatal renal function and need for dialysis at the age of 1 and 24 months were analyzed. Results: Of the 18 fetuses that met the study criteria, 17 (94.4%) survived the perinatal period. Eleven (61.1%) pregnancies developed oligohydramnios in the third trimester, six of which were eligible for and underwent fetal intervention with vesicoamniotic shunt placement, which was performed successfully in all six cases. Two (11.1%) neonates required respiratory support owing to pulmonary hypoplasia. At the age of 2 years, 14 children had follow-up information available, two (14.3%) of whom had normal renal function, eight (57.1%) had developed some degree of chronic kidney disease (Stage 1–4) and four (28.6%) had developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD), including two who had already manifested ESRD in the neonatal period. Conclusions: Most fetuses diagnosed prenatally with LUTO that is associated with a normal volume of amniotic fluid at midgestation will have a favorable outcome in terms of perinatal survival and few will need long-term respiratory support. However, these children are still at increased risk for chronic renal disease, ESRD and need for renal replacement therapy. Larger multicenter studies are needed to characterize the prenatal factors associated with postnatal renal function, and to investigate the role of fetal intervention in the group of fetuses that present with late-onset oligohydramnios and evidence of preserved fetal renal function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • chronic renal disease
  • dialysis
  • LUTO
  • obstructive uropathy
  • pulmonary hypoplasia
  • vesicoamniotic shunt

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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    Nassr, A. A., Shamshirsaz, A. A., Erfani, H., Espinoza, J., Sanz Cortes, M., Koh, C. J., Roth, D. R., Angelo, J. R., Mandy, G. T., Braun, M. C., Ruano, R., & Belfort, M. A. (Accepted/In press). Outcome of fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction and normal amniotic fluid volume in second trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. https://doi.org/10.1002/uog.20288