The incidence, mortality, and epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary infections have changed as a result of effective antiretroviral and prophylaxis antimicrobial therapy. The clinical presentation, radiographic abnormalities, and treatment of pneumonia from various uncommon pathogens in patients with AIDS can be different from those in immunocompetent patients. Advances in invasive and noninvasive testing and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis and prognosis of pulmonary infections in patients infected with HIV. This review focuses on pulmonary infections from nontuberculosis mycobacteria, cytomegalovirus, fungi (aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, endemic fungi), and parasites (toxoplasmosis), and uncommon bacterial pneumonia (nocardiosis, rhodococcosis) in these patients.
- Nontuberculosis mycobacteria
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine