Osmotic regulation of gene expression

Maurice B. Burg, Eugene D Kwon, Dietmar Kültz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

153 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cells react to increased osmolality with numerous changes in gene expression. The specific genes affected differ between species, but the known osmoprotective effects of the gene products are remarkably similar, particularly with regard to cellular accumulation of compatible organic osmolytes. Here we concentrate on the molecular basis for osmotic regulation of gene expression, emphasizing certain genes expressed in bacteria, yeast, and the mammalian renal medulla because their expression is best understood. Thus, we emphasize 1) bacterial and yeast two-component histidine kinase systems, each consisting of a membrane osmolality sensor and a separate cytoplasmic response regulator that, when phosphorylated, alters transcription, 2) volume regulatory increases in cellular K+ salts that can prompt increased gene transcription in bacteria through direct effects on DNA and that in mammalian renal cells increase transcription, seemingly via trans-activating proteins, 3) a yeast kinase cascade that transmits an osmotic signal to the gene regulating the level of glycerol, and 4) in mammalian cells, several homologous cascades that are activated by hypertonicity, but whose osmoregulatory targets are not yet known.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1598-1606
Number of pages9
JournalFASEB Journal
Volume10
Issue number14
StatePublished - Dec 1996
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

osmoregulation
gene expression regulation
Gene Expression Regulation
Gene expression
Genes
Transcription
Yeast
transcription (genetics)
Yeasts
osmolality
yeasts
genes
Osmolar Concentration
Bacteria
Phosphotransferases
histidine kinase
Kidney
bacteria
kidney cells
Histidine

Keywords

  • heat shock genes
  • hypertonicity
  • osmolytes
  • signaling pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Burg, M. B., Kwon, E. D., & Kültz, D. (1996). Osmotic regulation of gene expression. FASEB Journal, 10(14), 1598-1606.

Osmotic regulation of gene expression. / Burg, Maurice B.; Kwon, Eugene D; Kültz, Dietmar.

In: FASEB Journal, Vol. 10, No. 14, 12.1996, p. 1598-1606.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Burg, MB, Kwon, ED & Kültz, D 1996, 'Osmotic regulation of gene expression', FASEB Journal, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 1598-1606.
Burg MB, Kwon ED, Kültz D. Osmotic regulation of gene expression. FASEB Journal. 1996 Dec;10(14):1598-1606.
Burg, Maurice B. ; Kwon, Eugene D ; Kültz, Dietmar. / Osmotic regulation of gene expression. In: FASEB Journal. 1996 ; Vol. 10, No. 14. pp. 1598-1606.
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