The burden of liver diseases is increasing worldwide, with liver transplantation remaining the only treatment option for end-stage liver disease. Regenerative medicine holds great potential as a therapeutic alternative, aiming to repair or replace damaged liver tissue with healthy functional cells. The properties of the cells used are critical for the efficacy of this approach. The advent of liver organoids has not only offered new insights into human physiology and pathophysiology, but also provided an optimal source of cells for regenerative medicine and translational applications. Here, we discuss various historical aspects of 3D organoid culture, how it has been applied to the hepatobiliary system, and how organoid technology intersects with the emerging global field of liver regenerative medicine. We outline the hepatocyte, cholangiocyte, and nonparenchymal organoids systems available and discuss their advantages and limitations for regenerative medicine as well as future directions.
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