Oral Antibiotics Bowel Preparation Without Mechanical Preparation for Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgeries: Current Practice and Future Prospects

Mohamed A. Abd El Aziz, Fabian Grass, Giacomo Calini, Kevin T. Behm, Anne Lise D'Angelo, Scott R. Kelley, Kellie L. Mathis, David W. Larson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of preoperative oral antibiotics alone compared with mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation in minimally invasive surgery is still a matter of debate. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the trend of surgical site infection rates in parallel to the utilization of bowel preparation modality over time for minimally invasive colorectal surgeries in the United States. DESIGN: This study is a retrospective analysis. SETTINGS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was the source of data for this study. PATIENTS: Adult patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery and reported bowel preparation modality were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were the trends and the comparison of surgical site infection rates for mutually exclusive groups according to the underlying disease (colorectal cancer, IBD, and diverticular disease) who underwent bowel preparation using oral antibiotics or combined mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation. Patients who underwent rectal surgery were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 30,939 patients were included. Of them, 12,417 (40%) had rectal resections. Over the 7-year study period, mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation utilization increased from 29.3% in 2012 to 64.0% in 2018; p < 0.0001 at the expense of no preparation and mechanical bowel preparation alone. Similarly, oral antibiotics utilization increased from 2.3% in 2012 to 5.5% in 2018; p < 0.0001. For patients with colon cancer, patients who had oral antibiotics alone had higher superficial surgical site infection rates than patients who had combined mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation (1.9% vs 1.1%; p = 0.043). Superficial, deep, and organ space surgical site infection rates were similar for all other comparative colon surgery groups (cancer, IBD, and diverticular disease). Patients with rectal cancer who had oral antibiotics had higher rates of deep surgical site infection (0.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.004). However, superficial, deep, and organ space surgical site infection rates were similar for all other comparative rectal surgery groups. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by the retrospective nature of the analysis. CONCLUSION: This study revealed widespread adoption of mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation and increased adoption of oral antibiotics over the study period. Surgical site infection rates are similar from a clinical relevance standpoint among most comparative groups, questioning the systematic preoperative addition of mechanical bowel preparation to oral antibiotics alone in all patients for minimally invasive colorectal surgery. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B828.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E897-E906
JournalDiseases of the colon and rectum
Volume65
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

Keywords

  • Bowel preparation
  • Colorectal surgery
  • Mechanical bowel preparation
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Preoperative oral antibiotic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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