Online Family Problem Solving for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Influences of Parental Marital Status and Participation on Adolescent Outcomes

Stacey P. Raj, Nanhua Zhang, Michael W. Kirkwood, H. Gerry Taylor, Terry Stancin, Tanya M. Brown, Shari L. Wade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine the moderating effects of parent marital status and participation on efficacy of an online family problem-solving intervention for pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Participants were 132 adolescents (12-17 years) who had sustained a recent (<6 months) TBI and their parents. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving, CAPS) or an Internet resource comparison (IRC) condition. CAPS was designed to support families in the initial phase following TBI, by teaching problem-solving skills and addressing common challenges. To examine the moderating effect of parent marital status, participants were divided into 4 groups (ie, CAPS married household, CAPS unmarried household, IRC married household, and IRC unmarried household). Family income and caregiver education were controlled in analyses. Results: Parent marital status moderated treatment effects on adolescent externalizing behavior problems. Adolescents from married households in CAPS displayed fewer behavior problems at 6 and 18 months postbaseline compared with adolescents from unmarried households in CAPS. Among married CAPS families, there were no differences in outcomes among families where 1 or 2 parents actively participated. Conclusions: Web-based interventions for pediatric TBI, such as CAPS, are a viable option for some although not all families. Further research is needed to investigate factors that influence efficacy to match families to the most beneficial treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-166
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018



  • adolescent outcomes
  • closed head injury
  • parent-child relations
  • pediatric traumatic brain injury
  • pediatrics
  • treatment outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology

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