Oncolytic virus therapy leads to immunogenic death of virus-infected tumor cells and this has been shown in preclinical models to enhance the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), leading to killing of uninfected tumor cells. To investigate whether oncolytic virotherapy can increase immune responses to tumor antigens in human subjects, we studied T-cell responses against a panel of known myeloma TAAs using PBMC samples obtained from ten myeloma patients before and after systemic administration of an oncolytic measles virus encoding sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS). Despite their prior exposures to multiple immunosuppressive antimyeloma treatment regimens, T-cell responses to some of the TAAs were detectable even before measles virotherapy. Measurable baseline T-cell responses against MAGE-C1 and hTERT were present. Furthermore, MV-NIS treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased T-cell responses against MAGE-C1 and MAGE-A3. Interestingly, one patient who achieved complete remission after MV-NIS therapy had strong baseline T-cell responses both to measles virus proteins and to eight of the ten tested TAAs. Our data demonstrate that oncolytic virotherapy can function as an antigen agnostic vaccine, increasing cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against TAAs in patients with multiple myeloma, providing a basis for continued exploration of this modality in combination with immune checkpoint blockade.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research