Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of virotherapy in promoting antitumor immune responses. Here, we show that CD8+ T cells are critical for the efficacy of intratumoral vesicular stomatitis virus virotherapy and are induced against both virally encoded and tumor-associated immunodominant epitopes. We tested three separate immune interventions to increase the frequency/activity of activated antitumoral T cells. Depletion of Treg had a negative therapeutic effect because it relieved suppression of the antiviral immune response, leading to early viral clearance. In contrast, increasing the circulating levels of tumor antigen-specific T cells using adoptive T cell transfer therapy, in combination with intratumoral virotherapy, generated significantly improved therapy over either adoptive therapy or virotherapy alone. Moreover, the incorporation of a tumor-associated antigen within the oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus increased the levels of activation of naive T cells against the antigen, which translated into increased antitumor therapy. Therefore, our results show that strategies which enhance immune activation against tumor-associated antigens can also be used to enhance the efficacy of virotherapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research