Obesity remains a prominent public health concern. Obesity not only contributes greatly to cardiovascular events but has also been identified to initiate and affect the progression of preexisting chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of renal artery stenosis is growing world-wide, especially in the elderly population and in individuals with atherosclerotic risk factors such as obesity. Prolonged renovascular disease causes inflammation and microvascular remodeling within the post-stenotic kidney, which promote tissue scarring and may account for irreversible renal damage. Obesity has been shown to aggravate kidney damage via several pathways, including exacerbation of microvascular regression and renal cell injury mediated by adipocytes and insulin resistance, thereby worsening the structural and functional outcomes of the kidney in renovascular disease. Dietary modification and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been shown to alleviate obesity-induced tissue injury and remodeling. Possibly, angiogenic factors may boost microvascular repair in the ischemic kidney in the obesity milieu. Novel therapeutic interventions targeting deleterious pathways that are activated by obesity and responsible for kidney damage need to be explored in future studies.
- Insulin resistance
- Renal artery stenosis
- Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
ASJC Scopus subject areas