Nucleus-mitochondria positive feedback loop formed by ERK5 S496 phosphorylation-mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation provokes persistent pro-inflammatory senescent phenotype and accelerates coronary atherosclerosis after chemo-radiation

Sivareddy Kotla, Aijun Zhang, Masaki Imanishi, Kyung Ae Ko, Steven H. Lin, Young Jin Gi, Margie Moczygemba, Sevinj Isgandarova, Keri L. Schadler, Caroline Chung, Sarah A. Milgrom, Jose Banchs, Syed Wamique Yusuf, Diana N. Amaya, Huifang Guo, Tamlyn N. Thomas, Ying H. Shen, Anita Deswal, Joerg Herrmann, Eugenie S. KleinermanMark L. Entman, John P. Cooke, Giovanni Schifitto, Sanjay B. Maggirwar, Elena McBeath, Anisha A. Gupte, Sunil Krishnan, Zarana S. Patel, Yisang Yoon, Jared K. Burks, Keigi Fujiwara, Paul S. Brookes, Nhat Tu Le, Dale J. Hamilton, Jun ichi Abe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in cancer survivors than in the general population. Several cancer treatments are recognized as risk factors for CVD, but specific therapies are unavailable. Many cancer treatments activate shared signaling events, which reprogram myeloid cells (MCs) towards persistent senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and consequently CVD, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to provide mechanistic insights and potential treatments by investigating how chemo-radiation can induce persistent SASP. We generated ERK5 S496A knock-in mice and determined SASP in myeloid cells (MCs) by evaluating their efferocytotic ability, antioxidation-related molecule expression, telomere length, and inflammatory gene expression. Candidate SASP inducers were identified by high-throughput screening, using the ERK5 transcriptional activity reporter cell system. Various chemotherapy agents and ionizing radiation (IR) up-regulated p90RSK-mediated ERK5 S496 phosphorylation. Doxorubicin and IR caused metabolic changes with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion and ensuing mitochondrial stunning (reversible mitochondria dysfunction without showing any cell death under ATP depletion) via p90RSK-ERK5 modulation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation, which formed a nucleus-mitochondria positive feedback loop. This feedback loop reprogramed MCs to induce a sustained SASP state, and ultimately primed MCs to be more sensitive to reactive oxygen species. This priming was also detected in circulating monocytes from cancer patients after IR. When PARP activity was transiently inhibited at the time of IR, mitochondrial stunning, priming, macrophage infiltration, and coronary atherosclerosis were all eradicated. The p90RSK-ERK5 module plays a crucial role in SASP-mediated mitochondrial stunning via regulating PARP activation. Our data show for the first time that the nucleus-mitochondria positive feedback loop formed by p90RSK-ERK5 S496 phosphorylation-mediated PARP activation plays a crucial role of persistent SASP state, and also provide preclinical evidence supporting that transient inhibition of PARP activation only at the time of radiation therapy can prevent future CVD in cancer survivors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102132
JournalRedox Biology
Volume47
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Atherosclerosis
  • ERK5
  • Efferocytosis
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Mitochondrial stunning
  • Poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase
  • Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)
  • Telomere length
  • p90RSK

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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