Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging

Rajesh S. Amin, Paul Nikolaidis, Akira Kawashima, Larry A. Kramer, Randy D. Ernst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Owing to recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the role of obstetric MR imaging has increased in cases in which the results of ultrasonography are equivocal. Fast MR imaging sequences, such as T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE), half-Fourier single-shot fast SE, 0.5-signal-acquired single-shot fast SE, and echo-planar imaging, have virtually eliminated the need for fetal premedication, with a concomitant improvement in image resolution and diminished blurring. Artifacts related to maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion no longer limit the anatomic detail that can be demonstrated with MR imaging. With such advances in obstetric MR imaging, knowledge of normal fetal anatomy at MR imaging is essential to detect disease in utero. MR imaging can demonstrate fetal anatomy in detail, especially the brain, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and vasculature. Major developmental structures of the fetus, particularly the cranial nervous system, naso- and oropharynx, lungs, and major abdominal viscera, can be adequately evaluated with targeted fast MR imaging as early as the beginning of the second trimester. However, MR imaging of the heart remains limited. Fetal MR imaging during the first trimester remains controversial secondary to biosafety issues and is limited due to diminutive fetal size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalRadiographics
Volume19
Issue numberSPEC.ISS.
StatePublished - Oct 1 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Anatomy
Fetus
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Obstetrics
Echo-Planar Imaging
Oropharynx
Viscera
Nasopharynx
Premedication
Second Pregnancy Trimester
First Pregnancy Trimester
Pelvis
Abdomen
Artifacts
Nervous System
Ultrasonography
Thorax
Mothers
Lung
Brain

Keywords

  • Fetus, central nervous system, 856.92
  • Fetus, MR, 856.121416
  • Magnetic resonance (MR), rapid imaging, 856.121416
  • Magnetic resonance (MR), safety
  • Pregnancy, MR, 856.121416

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Amin, R. S., Nikolaidis, P., Kawashima, A., Kramer, L. A., & Ernst, R. D. (1999). Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging. Radiographics, 19(SPEC.ISS.).

Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging. / Amin, Rajesh S.; Nikolaidis, Paul; Kawashima, Akira; Kramer, Larry A.; Ernst, Randy D.

In: Radiographics, Vol. 19, No. SPEC.ISS., 01.10.1999.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amin, RS, Nikolaidis, P, Kawashima, A, Kramer, LA & Ernst, RD 1999, 'Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging', Radiographics, vol. 19, no. SPEC.ISS..
Amin RS, Nikolaidis P, Kawashima A, Kramer LA, Ernst RD. Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging. Radiographics. 1999 Oct 1;19(SPEC.ISS.).
Amin, Rajesh S. ; Nikolaidis, Paul ; Kawashima, Akira ; Kramer, Larry A. ; Ernst, Randy D. / Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging. In: Radiographics. 1999 ; Vol. 19, No. SPEC.ISS.
@article{687a7d8093a440b6b133b2d6fb7d5395,
title = "Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging",
abstract = "Owing to recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the role of obstetric MR imaging has increased in cases in which the results of ultrasonography are equivocal. Fast MR imaging sequences, such as T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE), half-Fourier single-shot fast SE, 0.5-signal-acquired single-shot fast SE, and echo-planar imaging, have virtually eliminated the need for fetal premedication, with a concomitant improvement in image resolution and diminished blurring. Artifacts related to maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion no longer limit the anatomic detail that can be demonstrated with MR imaging. With such advances in obstetric MR imaging, knowledge of normal fetal anatomy at MR imaging is essential to detect disease in utero. MR imaging can demonstrate fetal anatomy in detail, especially the brain, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and vasculature. Major developmental structures of the fetus, particularly the cranial nervous system, naso- and oropharynx, lungs, and major abdominal viscera, can be adequately evaluated with targeted fast MR imaging as early as the beginning of the second trimester. However, MR imaging of the heart remains limited. Fetal MR imaging during the first trimester remains controversial secondary to biosafety issues and is limited due to diminutive fetal size.",
keywords = "Fetus, central nervous system, 856.92, Fetus, MR, 856.121416, Magnetic resonance (MR), rapid imaging, 856.121416, Magnetic resonance (MR), safety, Pregnancy, MR, 856.121416",
author = "Amin, {Rajesh S.} and Paul Nikolaidis and Akira Kawashima and Kramer, {Larry A.} and Ernst, {Randy D.}",
year = "1999",
month = "10",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
journal = "Radiographics",
issn = "0271-5333",
publisher = "Radiological Society of North America Inc.",
number = "SPEC.ISS.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging

AU - Amin, Rajesh S.

AU - Nikolaidis, Paul

AU - Kawashima, Akira

AU - Kramer, Larry A.

AU - Ernst, Randy D.

PY - 1999/10/1

Y1 - 1999/10/1

N2 - Owing to recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the role of obstetric MR imaging has increased in cases in which the results of ultrasonography are equivocal. Fast MR imaging sequences, such as T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE), half-Fourier single-shot fast SE, 0.5-signal-acquired single-shot fast SE, and echo-planar imaging, have virtually eliminated the need for fetal premedication, with a concomitant improvement in image resolution and diminished blurring. Artifacts related to maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion no longer limit the anatomic detail that can be demonstrated with MR imaging. With such advances in obstetric MR imaging, knowledge of normal fetal anatomy at MR imaging is essential to detect disease in utero. MR imaging can demonstrate fetal anatomy in detail, especially the brain, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and vasculature. Major developmental structures of the fetus, particularly the cranial nervous system, naso- and oropharynx, lungs, and major abdominal viscera, can be adequately evaluated with targeted fast MR imaging as early as the beginning of the second trimester. However, MR imaging of the heart remains limited. Fetal MR imaging during the first trimester remains controversial secondary to biosafety issues and is limited due to diminutive fetal size.

AB - Owing to recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the role of obstetric MR imaging has increased in cases in which the results of ultrasonography are equivocal. Fast MR imaging sequences, such as T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE), half-Fourier single-shot fast SE, 0.5-signal-acquired single-shot fast SE, and echo-planar imaging, have virtually eliminated the need for fetal premedication, with a concomitant improvement in image resolution and diminished blurring. Artifacts related to maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion no longer limit the anatomic detail that can be demonstrated with MR imaging. With such advances in obstetric MR imaging, knowledge of normal fetal anatomy at MR imaging is essential to detect disease in utero. MR imaging can demonstrate fetal anatomy in detail, especially the brain, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and vasculature. Major developmental structures of the fetus, particularly the cranial nervous system, naso- and oropharynx, lungs, and major abdominal viscera, can be adequately evaluated with targeted fast MR imaging as early as the beginning of the second trimester. However, MR imaging of the heart remains limited. Fetal MR imaging during the first trimester remains controversial secondary to biosafety issues and is limited due to diminutive fetal size.

KW - Fetus, central nervous system, 856.92

KW - Fetus, MR, 856.121416

KW - Magnetic resonance (MR), rapid imaging, 856.121416

KW - Magnetic resonance (MR), safety

KW - Pregnancy, MR, 856.121416

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033208742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033208742&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 10517455

AN - SCOPUS:0033208742

VL - 19

JO - Radiographics

JF - Radiographics

SN - 0271-5333

IS - SPEC.ISS.

ER -