Although the incidence of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUG1B) may be decreasing, the case fatality associated with it remains unchanged. What do the most recent studies tell us about medical and endoscopic therapy? Erythromycin is a potentially useful adjunct to endoscopy, and further data are needed to establish its role in the management of patients with NVUGIB. The use of proton-pump inhibitors in addition to combination endoscopic therapy appears to reduce the rebleeding rate consistently across different studies; the route of administration, dosage, and duration of treatment require further definition. Although two controlled studies suggest improved outcomes with clot removal and endoscopic therapy, the exact role of endoscopic treatment in the setting of overlying clots remains controversial. Hemoclips have not been found, in general, to be superior to the available endoscopic techniques. Currently, other hemostatic techniques such as injection and thermocoagulation - and in particular, combination therapy using both methods - are preferable. No major "breakthrough" endoscopic treatment has emerged. Newer endoscopic therapies such as cryotherapy are interesting, but have not had widespread application. Endoscopic suturing techniques, as used in the treatment of esophageal reflux and obesity, have not been adapted to the management of gastrointestinal bleeding.
ASJC Scopus subject areas