Background: Conventional transvenous approaches for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead placement are not possible in some patients with limited venous access or severe tricuspid valve dysfunction. Methods: We retrospectively identified six patients who underwent ICD placement or revision requiring nontraditional alternative surgical lead placement at our institution between November 2006 and August 2008. The baseline and operative patient characteristic data were accumulated and reviewed. Results: All the patients (mean age 71 ± 3.4 years) underwent nontraditional surgical placement of epicardial ICD leads and traditional placement of ventricular epicardial bipolar pacing/sensing leads. Five patients had the distal lead tip fixed to the anterior epicardium of the right ventricular outflow tract, which was then looped under and around the ventricles, forming a "sling," and tunneled to a left subclavicular pocket. One patient had a single unipolar subcutaneous array lead fashioned into a "loop" and placed under the inferior aspect of the ventricles. The average procedure time was 311 ± 115 minutes with a mean defibrillatory threshold (DFT) of ≤ 22 + 3 J. Post-procedure hospitalization was 9.3 ± 4.4 days and no device-related complications were encountered. Mean device follow-up of 451 + 330 days showed normal function and two appropriate successful ICD discharges. Conclusion: Nontraditional alternative surgical methods for the placement of ICD systems in adult patients with limited venous access or TV dysfunction can achieve results similar to those of conventionally placed endovascular leads with limited complications and comparable DFTs in short-term follow-up.
- Congestive heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine