Objective: Currently, the risk of aneurysm sac rupture after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is estimated by using a group of anatomic variables. Available techniques for pressure monitoring include either direct measurement using catheter-based techniques or indirect measurement requiring implantation of a pressure sensor during aneurysm repair. None of these methods is without limitations. Radiation pressure, such as that generated by a modulated ultrasound (US) beam, can induce surface vibration at a distance. The velocity of the resulting surface waves depends on the tensile stress of the vibrated surface. By measuring the change in wave velocity, it is possible to detect the change in tensile stress and calculate the pressure through the vibrated surface. We tested this concept in an in vitro aneurysm model. Methods: Rubber tubes and explanted porcine abdominal aortas were used to model an aneurysm sac. The surface of the model was vibrated with an amplitude-modulated US beam. The resulting motion was detected either by reflected laser light or by Doppler US. The phase of the propagating wave was measured to assess changes in velocity with different pressures. Results: Increasing hydrostatic pressure in the rubber model correlated well with the cumulative phase shift (R2 = 0.96-0.99; P < .0001). By using a pump to generate dynamic pressure (between 110 and 200 mm Hg), the cumulative phase shift correlated well with the square of the mean pressure (R2 = 0.92; P < .0001); however, the correlation with pulse pressure was poor (24-36 mm Hg; r = 0.38; P < .02). In the porcine in vitro aortic sac model, the cumulative phase shift detected with both laser (r = 0.94-0.99; P < .0001) and Doppler (r = 0.96-0.99; P < .0001) correlated well with the aneurysm pressure. Conclusions: Application of vibrometry for noninvasive measurement of aortic aneurysm sac tension is feasible in an in vitro setting. The concept of vibrometry may be used to detect endotension noninvasively after EVAR. Clinical Relevance: Vibrometry may also be used to estimate wall stress in native aneurysms, and it may predict the risk of aneurysm rupture. Vibrometry may offer a technique for completely noninvasive monitoring of aneurysm sac pressure after EVAR. Vibrometry is based on the following principles: radiation pressure, such as that generated by modulated US, can induce surface vibration at a distance; by measuring the change in wave velocity of vibration, it is possible to detect changes in tensile stress and calculate the pressure through the vibrated surface. We tested this concept in an in vitro model and found that application of vibrometry for noninvasive measurement of aortic aneurysm sac tension is feasible. Vibrometry may also be used to estimate wall stress in native aneurysms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine