Non-celiac gluten and/or wheat sensitivity (NCGS) is thought to be an immune-mediated reaction to gluten or other components of wheat (eg, fructans or amylase trypsin inhibitors) with intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms which improve once gluten and/or wheat is eliminated from the diet and after a diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded with appropriate testing. However, there is a great deal of skepticism within the scientific community questioning the existence of NCGS as a distinct clinical disorder. There are no strict diagnostic criteria and a placebo-controlled rechallenge trial has been recommended for diagnosis. In research settings, a double-blind placebo-controlled rechallenge trial has been recommended for diagnosis. There are limited studies estimating the prevalence of NCGS using this study design. The existing studies have variable results likely due to the lack of a uniform diagnostic criterion, a great deal of dependence on the patient's perception of symptoms and a large nocebo effect in existing studies. In clinical practice, a single blind placebo-controlled rechallenge trial has been recommended for diagnosis. The pathogenesis of NCGS is unclear and there is no known biomarker or diagnostic histologic lesion for this condition. It is important to adopt a multidisciplinary team approach to patients with suspected NCGS with involvement of the primary care doctor, gastroenterologist, pathologist and nutritionist who may play an important role in diagnosis and treatment. There may especially be a role in elimination of food containing high quantity of both gluten and fructans. Furthermore, patients should be educated on the nutritional implications of consuming a long-term gluten-free diet.
- gluten-related disorders
- non-celiac gluten sensitivity
ASJC Scopus subject areas