Nitric Oxide in Vascular Damage and Regeneration

Claudio Napoli, Lilach O Lerman, Maria Luisa Balestrieri, Louis J. Ignarro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the molecular mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in vascular damage. It emphasizes the promising findings in the field of NO and vascular regeneration. NO controls vasorelaxation, endothelial regeneration, inhibition of platelet adhesion, and leukocyte chemotaxis. NO regulates not only vascular function but also many levels of parenchymal function in organs like the kidney, liver, brain, and lung. The modulation of NO availability by increased release or decreased degradation should be done in a spatially specific manner that would correspond to areas in which a specific isoform plays a regulatory role. Its central position in the regulation of organ physiology and molecular signaling generates the impetus to augment its levels in an attempt to interfere with the pathophysiological cascade that leads to tissue dysfunction and destruction. NO deficiency, critical in the development of atherosclerosis and renovascular diseases, occurs through reduced expression and activity of NO synthase, decreased levels or impaired utilization of L-arginine, and enhanced degradation of NO by oxidation-sensitive mechanisms. Genetic manipulation of NO synthase provides important insights into the pathogenic pathway of vascular diseases. Results from pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest that modulation of oxidation-sensitive mechanisms and augmentation of NO production through the administration of L-arginine and antioxidants improve the neovascularization following bone marrow cell therapy or gene therapy. Moreover, nitrite infusion represents a promising NO-generating approach that offers the potential to modulate vascular function during ischemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)629-672
Number of pages44
JournalUnknown Journal
DOIs
StatePublished - 2010

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Blood Vessels
Regeneration
Nitric Oxide
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Arginine
Modulation
Leukocyte Chemotaxis
Gene therapy
Degradation
Oxidation
Physiology
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
Nitrites
Platelets
Vascular Diseases
Vasodilation
Bone Marrow Cells
Genetic Therapy
Liver
Brain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Nitric Oxide in Vascular Damage and Regeneration. / Napoli, Claudio; Lerman, Lilach O; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Ignarro, Louis J.

In: Unknown Journal, 2010, p. 629-672.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Napoli, Claudio ; Lerman, Lilach O ; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa ; Ignarro, Louis J. / Nitric Oxide in Vascular Damage and Regeneration. In: Unknown Journal. 2010 ; pp. 629-672.
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