OBJECTIVES: To describe the neurologic spectrum and treatment outcomes for neurochondrin-IgG positive cases identified serologically in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens previously scored positive for IgGs that stained mouse hippocampal tissue in a nonuniform synaptic pattern by immunofluorescence assay (89 among 616,025 screened, 1993-2019) were reevaluated. Antibody characterization experiments revealed specificity for neurochondrin, confirmed by recombinant protein assays. RESULTS: IgG in serum (9) or CSF (4) from 8 patients yielded identical neuron-restricted CNS patterns, most pronounced in hippocampus (stratum lucidum in particular), cerebellum (Purkinje cells and molecular layer), and amygdala. All were neurochondrin-IgG positive. Five were women; median symptom onset age was 43 years (range, 30-69). Of 7 with clinical data, 6 presented with rapidly progressive cerebellar ataxia, brainstem signs, or both; 1 had isolated unexplained psychosis 1 year prior. Five of 6 had cerebellar signs, 4 with additional brainstem symptoms or signs (eye movement abnormalities, 3; dysphagia, 2; nausea and vomiting, 1). One patient with brainstem signs (vocal cord paralysis and VII nerve palsy) had accompanying myelopathy (longitudinally extensive abnormality on MRI; aquaporin-4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG negative). The 7th patient had small fiber neuropathy only. Just 1 of 7 had contemporaneous cancer (uterine). Six patients with ataxia or brainstem signs received immunotherapy, but just 1 remained ambulatory. At last follow-up, 5 had MRI evidence of severe cerebellar atrophy. CONCLUSION: In our series, neurochondrin autoimmunity was usually accompanied by a nonparaneoplastic rapidly progressive rhombencephalitis with poor neurologic outcomes. Other phenotypes and occasional paraneoplastic causes may occur.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology