BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, there has been a remarkable advancement in the understanding of autoimmune etiologies of encephalitis. The first identified generation of paraneoplastic encephalitis tends to occur in older populations, responds poorly to immunotherapy, and is mediated by T-cell damage with antibodies directed toward intracellular antigens. A new generation of autoimmune encephalitides has been described, which are mediated by antibodies to cell-surface proteins, tend to occur in younger individuals, are less frequently associated with malignancy, and often respond better to treatment compared to their intracellular antigen-related paraneoplastic counterparts. This review will focus on several specific antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitides with neuro-ophthalmic pertinence. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature review and personal clinical experience. RESULTS: Several of the antibody-mediated encephalitides, specifically N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6, glial fibrillary acidic protein, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), collapsing response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5), and kelch-like protein 11 (KLHL11), contain features of neuro-ophthalmic interest. CONCLUSIONS: The novel cell-surface protein-directed autoimmune encephalitis group can present with a wide range of afferent and efferent neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. Neuro-ophthalmologists should be familiar with these antibody-associated syndromes, which are treatable and often require a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2020|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology