Network Meta-analysis of Food and Drug Administration-approved Treatment Options for Adults with Aquaporin-4 Immunoglobulin G-positive Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

Dean M. Wingerchuk, Ina Zhang, Adrian Kielhorn, Minying Royston, Michael Levy, Kazuo Fujihara, Ichiro Nakashima, Imran Tanvir, Friedemann Paul, Sean J. Pittock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune disease defined by attacks on the central nervous system that cause irreversible damage. Recent approval of NMOSD therapies warrants investigations of comparative efficacy to inform treatment decisions. Methods: A network meta-analysis (NMA) of all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies (eculizumab, inebilizumab, and satralizumab) for adults with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G-positive (AQP4+) NMOSD was conducted via a systematic literature review (SLR) using data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Database searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were executed for the SLR. A fixed-effects proportional hazards Bayesian NMA was used to estimate relative treatment effects based on data extracted from RCTs identified during the SLR (search end date: 11 September 2020). Four unique RCTs (N-MOmentum, PREVENT, SAkuraSky, and SAkuraStar) were identified, and data from 29 publications were extracted for analysis. Network scenarios describing the most comparable patient population groups (such as by treatment settings) were evaluated in our analyses. Relative treatment effects were evaluated based on time-to-first relapse and were expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Results: In patients treated with a monoclonal antibody only, eculizumab was associated with a lower risk of relapse compared with satralizumab (HR 0.10, 95% CrI 0.01, 0.65) and inebilizumab (HR 0.11, 95% CrI 0.02, 0.68). In patients treated with monoclonal antibody with or without background immunosuppressive therapy (IST), patients treated with eculizumab ± IST were also less likely to relapse than patients treated with satralizumab ± IST (HR 0.24, 95% CrI 0.06, 0.98). Conclusion: The NMA results suggest that complement component 5 (C5) inhibition prevents NMOSD relapses more effectively than broader mechanisms of action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNeurology and Therapy
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Aquaporin-4
  • Eculizumab
  • Inebilizumab
  • Network meta-analysis
  • Neuromyelitis optica
  • Satralizumab

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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