Minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and membranous nephropathy (MN) are the most common causes of the nephrotic syndrome, diagnosed by demonstrating edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. MCD, FSGS, and MN vary by renal prognosis and known secondary causes. Renal biopsy is the gold standard for the proper diagnosis of MCD, FSGS, and MN. Management of the nephrotic syndrome is 2-fold: treatment of symptoms and complications (ie, edema, hyperlipidemia) and treatment of the underlying disease process (eg, corticosteroid therapy for primary diseases).
- Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- Membranous nephropathy
- Minimal change disease
- Nephrotic syndrome
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