Neonatal seizures: To treat or not to treat?

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The immature brain is intrinsically hyperexcitable, a feature that, despite being crucial for learning, synaptogenesis and neuronal plasticity, predisposes the neonate to seizures. Seizures represent the most common neurologic manifestation of impaired brain function in this age group. Importantly, although seizure-induced neuronal injury is minimal in the "healthy" neonatal brain, the "metabolically-compromised" brain appears more vulnerable. Even in the "healthy" brain, however, seizures result in impaired learning, enhanced susceptibility to further seizures, and increased risk of brain injury with seizures later in life, as a result of altered hippocampal circuitry. Given these findings, an aggressive approach to neonatal seizures appears warranted. However, our current conventional therapies (including phenobarbital, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines), even when used in combination, are often ineffective in controlling seizures. Lidocaine may yield better efficacy but requires more study. Recent animal data suggest that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) antagonists such as topiramate may have a neuroprotective role. However, further work is needed to confirm the safety of excitatory amino acid antagonists in neonates because there remains a prevailing concern that such agents may impair normal neurodevelopmental processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-105
Number of pages9
JournalSeminars in Pediatric Neurology
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Seizures
Brain
Learning
Newborn Infant
Isoxazoles
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid
Neuronal Plasticity
Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Neurologic Manifestations
Lidocaine
Benzodiazepines
Brain Injuries
Age Groups
Safety
Acids
Wounds and Injuries

Keywords

  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • Neonate
  • Seizures
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Neonatal seizures : To treat or not to treat? / Wirrell, Elaine C.

In: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 06.2005, p. 97-105.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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