Immunosuppressants are critical after transplantation and prescribed as immune-modulators for autoimmune disorders and glomerulonephritides. Immunosuppressants include large (e.g., thymoglobulin, alemtuzumab, and rituximab) and small molecules (e.g., corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors). The majority of the small molecules worsen traditional cardiovascular risks. This review describes cardiovascular risks of small molecule immunosuppressants: corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine), and mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin), by categorizing these risks into two categories: ischemic heart disease and nonischemic cardiac effects.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)