Negative Cardiovascular Consequences of Small Molecule Immunosuppressants

H. A. Chakkera, A. Sharif, B. Kaplan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Immunosuppressants are critical after transplantation and prescribed as immune-modulators for autoimmune disorders and glomerulonephritides. Immunosuppressants include large (e.g., thymoglobulin, alemtuzumab, and rituximab) and small molecules (e.g., corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors). The majority of the small molecules worsen traditional cardiovascular risks. This review describes cardiovascular risks of small molecule immunosuppressants: corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus and cyclosporine), and mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin), by categorizing these risks into two categories: ischemic heart disease and nonischemic cardiac effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-276
Number of pages8
JournalClinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Negative Cardiovascular Consequences of Small Molecule Immunosuppressants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this