Natriuretic peptide pathways in heart failure: further therapeutic possibilities

S. Jeson Sangaralingham, Michaela Kuhn, Valentina Cannone, Horng H. Chen, John C. Burnett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The discovery of the heart as an endocrine organ resulted in a remarkable recognition of the natriuretic peptide system (NPS). Specifically, research has established the production of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) from the heart, which exert pleiotropic cardiovascular, endocrine, renal, and metabolic actions via the particulate guanylyl cyclase A receptor (GC-A) and the second messenger, cGMP. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is produced in the endothelium and kidney and mediates important protective auto/paracrine actions via GC-B and cGMP. These actions, in part, participate in the efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in heart failure (HF) due to the augmentation of the NPS. Here, we will review important insights into the biology of the NPS, the role of precision medicine, and focus on the phenotypes of human genetic variants of ANP and BNP in the general population and the relevance to HF. We will also provide an update of the existence of NP deficiency states, including in HF, which provide the rationale for further therapeutics for the NPS. Finally, we will review the field of peptide engineering and the development of novel designer NPs for the treatment of HF. Notably, the recent discovery of a first-in-class small molecule GC-A enhancer, which is orally deliverable, will be highlighted. These innovative designer NPs and small molecule possess enhanced and novel properties for the treatment of HF and cardiovascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3416-3433
Number of pages18
JournalCardiovascular research
Issue number18
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • Guanylyl cyclase drug discovery
  • Heart failure
  • Natriuretic peptides
  • Small molecules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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