National Analysis of Patients With External Ear Melanoma in the United States

Jeremie D. Oliver, Daniel Boczar, Andrea Sisti, Maria T. Huayllani, David J. Restrepo, Aaron C. Spaulding, Emmanuel Gabriel, Sanjay Bagaria, Brian D. Rinker, Antonio J. Forte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: External ear melanoma (EEM) is a rare condition with controversies in the literature. We analyzed patients with EEM in the United States compared to other head and neck melanomas (OHNMs). METHODS: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was used to select patients with head and neck melanoma from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2015. Mann-Whitney and χ tests were used to estimate statistical significance, and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent associations adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: A total of 137,233 patients met the study criteria. Among them, 16,991 (12.4%) had EEM and 120,242 (87.6%) had OHNM. For patients with EEM, the mean (standard deviation) age was 66.26 (15.798) years. Most of the patients with EEM were men (85.5%), insured by Medicare (52.4%), and treated in Academic/Research Programs (47.7%) or Comprehensive Community Cancer Programs (32.3%). Most of the EEM tumors had invasive behavior (68.0%) were Stages 0 (30.3%) or I (40.3%), and were without ulceration (76.9%). Mean time to receive any treatment was 14.1 days for EEM compared with 14.6 days for OHNM (P < 0.001). We noticed a greater proportion of EEM in men (14.8%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.72 [2.605-2.852]; P < 0.001) compared to women (6.22%; reference). EEM was an independent factor for tumor Stage I (14.47%; aOR 1.61 [1.101-1.224], P < 0.001) and invasive behavior (13.86%; aOR 1.268 [1.15-1.389]; P < 0.001) compared to OHNM. CONCLUSION: EEM was associated with higher odds of invasive behavior compared to OHNM. Furthermore, men were found to have a higher likelihood to develop EEM compared to women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e787-e790
JournalThe Journal of craniofacial surgery
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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