Our group previously demonstrated that M-protein light chain (LC) glycosylation can be detected on routine MASS-FIX testing. Glycosylation is increased in patients with immunoglobulin LC amyloidosis (AL) and rarely changes over the course of a patient’s lifetime. To determine the rates of progression to AL and other plasma cell disorders (PCDs), we used residual serum samples from the Olmsted monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) screening cohort. Four-hundred and fourteen patients with known MGUS were tested by MASS-FIX, and 25 (6%) were found to have glycosylated LCs. With a median follow-up of surviving patients of 22.2 years, the 20-year progression rates to a malignant PCD were 67% (95% CI 29%, 84%) and 13% (95% CI 9%, 18%) for patients with and without glycosylated LCs, respectively. The risk of progression was independent of Mayo MGUS risk score. The respective rates of progression to AL at 20 years were 21% (95% CI 0.0%, 38%) and 3% (95% CI 0.6%, 5.5%). In summary, monoclonal LC glycosylation is a potent risk factor for progression to AL, myeloma, and other PCDs, an observation which could lead to earlier diagnoses and potentially reduced morbidity and mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research