Although Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is hypothesized to be a prerequisite for multiple sclerosis (MS), up to 15% of children with a diagnosis of MS were reported to be EBV-seronegative. When re-evaluating 25 EBV-seronegative children out of 189 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome/MS, we found anti–myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody in 11 of 25 (44%) EBV-seronegative but only 9 of 164 (5.5%, p < 0.001) EBV-seropositive patients. After critical review, MS remained a plausible diagnosis in only 4 of 14 EBV-seronegative/MOG antibody–negative patients. In children with an MS-like presentation, EBV seronegativity should alert clinicians to consider diagnoses other than MS, especially MOG-antibody disease. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:1234–1239.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology