Objective: To evaluate our multi-institutional outcome with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in renal transplant recipients and describe technical modifications of the procedure. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1677 patients, 1422 from Mayo Clinic Arizona and 255 from Loyola University Medical Center, undergoing RARP from March 2004 to October 2010, of which 7 were renal transplant recipients. Baseline demographic features, perioperative data, and oncologic outcomes were reviewed. Results: At diagnosis, mean patient age was 63.3 years and serum prostate specific antigen was 6.17 ng/mL. The mean total operative time was 186 minutes (range, 80-210 minutes). No intraoperative complications were noted. The mean hospital length of stay was 1.8 days (range, 1-3 days). Clavien grade II postoperative complications occurred in 3 of the 7 patients (42.9%), consisting of urosepsis, atrial fibrillation, and gross hematuria, all resolving with appropriate medical management. No significant changes were observed in graft function. Two patients (28.6%) had positive surgical margins. During a mean follow-up of 16 months, 1 patient with pathologic T3a, Gleason 9 cancer experienced a biochemical recurrence, which was treated with salvage external-beam radiation and androgen-deprivation therapy. Conclusion: Our series suggests that RARP is a safe and feasible form of therapy for localized prostate cancer in a select group of renal transplant recipients.
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